Cognitive and Social-Cognitive Aspects of Personality

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  1. An approach to psychology that emphasizes the integrative and active nature of perception and thought suggesting that the whole may be greater than the sum of its parts.
    Gestalt Psychology
  2. The extent to which an individual's problem-solving is influenced by the context in which the problem occurs.
    Field Dependence
  3. If a child is field independent, what are their play preferences most likely going to be like?
    Solitary over social play.
  4. Is a person is field independent, what is his socializaiton patterns going to be like?
    Emphasis on autonomy over conformity
  5. If a person is field independent, what kind of career will he most likely enter?
    Technological rather than humanitarian.
  6. An independent will most likely sit ________________ from conversational partners.
    father away
  7. What kind of eye contact does a field independent person make?
    Less frequent eye contact
  8. The extent to which a person comprehends, utilizes, and is comfortable with a greater number of distinctions or separate elements into which an entity or event is analyzed, and the extent to which the person can integrate these elements by drawing connections or relationships among them.
    Cognitive complexity
  9. An example of a person with low cognitive complexity is...
    A religious person who only sees his views.
  10. The characteristic way in which an individual approached a task or skill to be learned.
    Learning style
  11. Is one learning style consistently superior to another?
  12. A cognitive structure that organizes knowledge and expectations about one's environment. Determines how we think or act.
  13. A scheme for a familiar ritual, such as eating in a restaurant.
  14. Who said that children progress through stages of cognitive development as they mature?
  15. Who came up with the personal construct theory?
    George Kelly
  16. When people actively endeavor to understand the world and construct their own theories about human behavior.
    Personal Construct Theory
  17. A tendency that starts at an early age to organize events, objects, and people.
  18. What are three positive effects of categorization?
    • 1. Quickly understand complex information
    • 2. Block out irrelevant stimuli
    • 3. Make likely inferences about new things.
  19. Two negative effects of categorization?
    • 1. Stereotypes
    • 2. Overlook individuating characteristics
  20. A set of cognitive personality variables that captures a person's habitual means of interpreting events in his or her life.
    Explanatory style
  21. Came up with the idea of learned helplessness.
  22. Repeated exposure to unavoidable punishment that leads to the acceptance of avoidable punishment.
    Learned helplessness
  23. Vicarious learning and modeling
    Observational learning
  24. How can new behaviors be acquired in the absence of reinforcement?
    Observational learning
  25. Who came up with the idea of observational learning, such as the BOBO dolls.
    Albert Bandura
  26. People are more likely to imitate behaviors that they believe lead to positive outcomes.
    Outcome expectancy
  27. Four factors that influence modeling...
    • 1. Outcome expectancy
    • 2. Characteristics of the model
    • 3. Characteristics of the behavior (more likely to repeat behavior if it is simple and salient)
    • 4. Attributes of the observor (self-esteem, etc.)
  28. A belief about how competently one will be able to enact a behavior in a particular situation.
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Cognitive and Social-Cognitive Aspects of Personality
2012-04-25 03:12:23

Exam 2
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