BIO 181 Review Cardiovascular

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BIO 181 Review Cardiovascular
2012-04-25 15:37:13

Mossmans cardiovascular system review
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  1. Trace blood flow in order through the major vessels and circuits.
    Vena Cava, AV Valve, Right Ventricle, SL Valve, pulmonary artery, lungs, pulmonary vein, Left atrium, AV Valve, Left ventricle, SL Valve, Aorta
  2. Which chambers of the heart are Oxygen poor?
    Right atrium and ventricle.
  3. What are the phases of the cardiac cycle?
    Systole and diastole
  4. Describe the muscular, valve, fluid, and electrical activity associated with systole
    • – ventricles contract; atria relax
    • – blood flows out of heart into pulmonary artery and aorta
    • – mitral and tricuspid valves closed
    • – aortic and pulmonic valves open
  5. Describe the muscular, valve, fluid, and electrical activity associated with diastole
    • – ventricles relax; atria contract
    • – blood flows from atria into ventricles
    • – mitral and tricuspid valves open
    • – aortic and pulmonic valves closed
  6. Given EDV , ESV , and HR, how do you calculate SV , CO, and EF?
    • CO = stroke volume (SV) x heart rate (HR)
    • SV = EDV-ESV
  7. On average, how often does an RBC pass through the heart?
    Every Minute
  8. Starting with the outermost, name the three types of “—cardium”
  9. Pericardium
    protects heart
  10. Myocardium
    • – heart muscle responsible for pumping blood
    • – connective tissue for support and nerve conduction
  11. Endocardium
    smooth surface minimizes blood turbulence during pumping
  12. What is the cause of the twisting or torque motion of the heart as it contracts?
    Uneveness of the thickness in the cardiac wall.
  13. During one minute, approximately how much time is spent in diastole and how much is spent in systole?
    0.4 minutes in systole 0.6 minutes in diastole
  14. Compare and contrast atrial and ventricular contraction in terms of strength, length, timing, valve activity, and maximum blood pressure.
    atria only pump blood within the heart. Hence, they contract for a shorter amount of time and weaker. Atria contract before ventricles and atrioventricular valves prevent backflow when ventricles contract.
  15. How would a massive drop in blood volume affect CO? Why would tachycardia be expected as a result?
    A massive drop in blood volume would result in a drop in stoke volume. To maintain cardiac output despite lowered stroke volume, the heart rate would have to increase to abnormally fast rate. Remember that CO = SV*HR.
  16. What factors affect SV?
    • – degree of stretch of heart muscle (preload)-increases EDV
    • – Strength of contraction (contractility)- decreases ESV
    • – Back pressure on ventricle (afterload)- minor except in people with BP↑↑
  17. What factors can influence HR? What hormones, if any, regulate these factors?
    • – blood pressure
    • – blood composition (e.g. water, Na+ content)
    • – sympathetic/parasy mpathetic nervous
    • system

  18. What is the sequence of events in the conducting system (nervous tissue) of the heart through one cardiac cycle? Correlate these events with the signals on an EKG.
    • • P wave: atrial depolarization
    • • QRS complex: ventricular depolarization
    • • T wave: ventricular repolarization
  19. Why is rapid conduction of the electrical signal from the Bundle of His to the Purkinje fibers important for efficient pumping of blood?
    Because they cause the ventricles to contract and pump blood throught the body
  20. Resistance to blood flow is regulated primarily in which type of vessel? In these vessels, how is blood flow to an organ increased or decreased?
    Blood Vessels. regulated by the vasoconstriction or vasodialation of the tunica media
  21. Which type of vessel is most elastic and why is this important?
    Arteries. They then have a higher resistance to high blood pressure.
  22. Which type of vessel is least robust (against pressure increase, stresses, etc) and how is its inherent weakness associated with its function?
    Venules and Veins. It makes it easier for them to intake blood and take the blood back to the heart.
  23. afterload
    the load, or resistance, against which the left ventricle must eject its volume of blood during contraction.
  24. Aldosterone
    an adrenal hormone that causes elevation of blood pressure through the retention of sodium and the resultant increase in blood plasma volume.
  25. angiotensin
    Any of a group of peptides with vasoconstrictive activity that function physiologically in controlling arterial pressure.
  26. antidiuretic hormone
    A hormone, posterior lobe of the pituitary gland, constricts blood vessels, raises blood pressure,
  27. aorta
    The main blood vessel that leads away from the heart and the body's largest artery. The aorta carries blood from the heart through the chest and abdomen, providing major branches to all of the organs in the body
  28. aortic valve
    The valve between the left ventricle of the heart and the ascending aorta, consisting of three semilunar cusps.
  29. arteriole
    a smaller arterial branch off an artery and connecting to a capillary.
  30. artery
    one of the large blood vessels carrying blood in a direction away from the heart to the tissues
  31. atrioventricular (AV) node
    a collection of Purkinje fibers beneath the endocardium of the right atrium, continuous with the atrial muscle fibers and atrioventricular bundle; it receives the cardiac impulses from the sinoatrial node and passes them on to the ventricles.
  32. atrioventricular (AV) valve
    a valve in the heart through which blood flows from the atria to the ventricles. The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle is the mitral (bicuspid) valve; the right AV valve is the tricuspid valve
  33. atrium
    Either the right or the left upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the veins and forces it into a ventricle.
  34. bundle branches
    a segment of the network of specialized conducting fibers that transmits electrical impulses within the ventricles of the heart. Bundle branches are a continuation of the atrioventricular (AV) bundle, which extends from the upper part of the intraventricular septum.
  35. capillary
    • one of the minute vessels connecting the arterioles and venules, the walls of which act as a semipermeable membrane for interchange of various substances between the blood and tissue fluid.
  36. Cardiac Cycle
    a complete cardiac movement, or heart beat, including systole, diastole, and intervening pause
  37. cardiac insufficiency
    inability of the heart to pump blood at a rate adequate to fill tissue metabolic requirements or the ability to do so only at an elevated filling pressure
  38. cardiac output
    The volume of blood pumped from the right or left ventricle in one minute. It is equal to the stroke volume multiplied by the heart rate.
  39. cardiac reserve
    • The work that the heart is able to perform beyond that required of it under ordinary circumstances.
  40. contractility
    the inotropic state of the myocardium; a major determinant of cardiac output
  41. diastole
    the phase of the cardiac cycle in which the heart relaxes between contractions; specifically, the period when the two ventricles are dilated by the blood flowing into them.
  42. diastolic pressure
    the lowest pressure recorded in the arterial blood pressure cycle. Represents the minimal pressure in the left ventricle which can maintain its ejection phase
  43. ejection fraction
    the proportion of the volume of blood in the ventricles at the end of diastole that is ejected during systole; it is the stroke volume divided by the end-diastolic volume
  44. elastin
    An elastic, fibrous mucoprotein, similar to collagen, and the major connective tissue protein of elastic fibers.
  45. end-diastolic volume
    (EDV) the volume of blood in each ventricle at the end of diastole
  46. end-systolic volume
    (ESV) the volume of blood remaining in each ventricle at the end of systole
  47. endothelium
    the layer of epithelial cells that lines the cavities of the heart
  48. erythrocyte
    red blood cell
  49. fibrillation
    Rapid, uncoordinated contractions of the upper or the lower chambers of the heart.
  50. hematocrit
    The percentage by volume of packed red blood cells in a given sample of blood after centrifugation.
  51. hydrostatic pressure
    the pressure in the circulatory system exerted by the volume of blood when it is confined in a blood vessel.
  52. hypertension
    persistently high arterial blood pressure
  53. inferior vena cava
    The biggest vein in the body, returning blood to the heart from the lower half of the body
  54. leukocytes
    white blood cells
  55. lumen
    The inner cavity or canal of a tube-shaped organ
  56. mean arterial pressure
    the average pressure within an artery over a complete cycle of one heartbeat.
  57. mitral valve
    that between the left atrium and left ventricle, usually having two cusps (Bicuspid)
  58. P wave
    Part of the cardiac cycle shown on an EKG as an inverted U-shaped curve that follows the T wave and precedes the QRS complex. It represents atrial depolarization.
  59. plasma
    the fluid portion of the blood in which the particulate components are suspended.
  60. platelets
    The smallest cells in the blood. They are formed in the red bone marrow
  61. preload
    the volume of blood in the ventricle at the end of diastole.
  62. pulmonary trunk
    the short, wide vessel that conveys venous blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs.
  63. pulmonary veins
    • A vein that carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
  64. pulmonic valve
    the pocket like cardiac valve that protects the orifice between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.
  65. pulse pressure
    the difference between systolic and diastolic pressures.
  66. Purkinje fibers
    modified cardiac fibers in the subendocardial tissue that constitute the terminal ramifications of the conducting system of the heart. The term is sometimes used loosely to denote the entire system of conducting fibers.
  67. QRS complex
    the portion of the electrocardiogram comprising the Q, R, and S waves, together representing ventricular depolarization.
  68. regurgitation
    backflow of blood
  69. semilunar valves
    One of three semilunar segments serving as the cusps of a valve preventing regurgitation, as in the aortic valve and the pulmonary valve.
  70. sinoatrial (SA) node
    cardiac muscle fibers located in the posterior wall of the right atrium of the heart that acts as a pacemaker of the cardiac conduction system by generating at regular intervals the electric impulses of the heartbeat.
  71. skeletal muscle pump
    a collection of skeletal muscles that aid the heart in the circulation of blood.
  72. stroke volume
    is the volume of blood pumped from one ventricle of the heartwith each beat.
  73. superior vena cava
    is a large diameter, yet short, vein that carries deoxygenatedblood from the upper half of the body to the heart's right atrium.
  74. systemic circulation
    part of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body, and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart.
  75. systole
    is a phase of the cardiac cycle in which the myocardium contracts
  76. systolic pressure
    the blood pressure measured during the period of ventricular contraction (systole). In blood pressure readings, it is the higher of the two measurements.
  77. T wave
    the deflection of the normal electrocardiogram following the QRS complex; it represents repolarization or recovery of the ventricles.
  78. tachycardia
    abnormally rapid heart rate
  79. total peripheral resistance
    the overall resistance to blood flow through the systemic blood vessels.
  80. tricuspid
    the valve located between the right atrium and right ventricle. Called also right atrioventricular valve.
  81. vagal tone
    the inhibitory control of the vagus nerve over heart rate and atrioventricular conduction.
  82. vasoconstriction
    • Constriction of a blood vessel, as by a nerve or drug.
  83. vasodilation
    Dilation of a blood vessel, as by the action of a nerve or drug.
  84. vasopressin
  85. vein
    a vessel in which blood flows toward the heart
  86. venous return
    • The blood returning to the heart via the inferior and superior venae cavae.
  87. ventricle
    Lower cavities in the heart
  88. venule
    any of the small vessels that collect blood from the capillary