Science - Acids and Bases
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List the properties of acids
Acids turn blue litmus paper red
Acids have a pH less than 7
Acids have a sour taste
Give examples of acids
- Lemon juice
- Hydorchloric Acid
- Sulphuric Acid
List the properties of bases
Bases turn red litmus paper blue
Bases have a pH greater than 7
Bases have a soapy feel
State examples of bases
- Washing soda
- Sodium hydroxide
- Calcium hydroxide
What is an alkali?
This is a base that dissolves in water eg. washing powder
State the function (job) of an indicator
To tell us if the solution is an acid or a base
What is a neutral substance?
These are substances that do not behave like acids or bases
What is the pH Scale?
This is used to measure the strength of an acid or a base
State whether a solution is neutral, acidic or basic when a solution has a pH greater than 7
State whether a solution of neutral, acidic or basic when a solution has a pH of 7
State whether a solution is neutral, acidic or basic when a solution has a pH less than 7
State the two types of indicators?
1. Litmus Indicator
2. Universal Indicator
What is litmus indicator?
This will change colour if the solution is an acid or a base
It does not show how strong the acid or base is
What colour change is observed when litmus paper is put into an acid?
It changes from blue to red
What colour change is observed when litmus paper is put into a base?
It changes from red to blue
What is universal indicator?
This is a mixture of dyes that changes colour depending on how concentrated an acid or a base is
It shows the pH of the acid or base
What is neutralisation?
This is when an acid and a base react to produce a salt and water
Acid + Base ------- Salt + Water
What happens when an acid and a carbonate react together?
It produces salt, water and carbon dioxide
Acid + Carbonate ---- Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide
What is titration?
This is a laboratory technique that is used to find out the exact volume of acid needed to neutralise a base
Hydrochloric Acid + Sodium Hydroxide ----- Sodium Chloride + Water
HCl + NaOH ----- NaCl + H20
List examples of everyday neutralisation reactions
1. Baking powder helps a cake mixture to rise
2. Milk of Magnesia neutralises stomach acid to stop heartburn
3. Toothpaste neutralises the plaque acid in our mouth
4. Shampoo balances the acidity of hair
5. Rubbing bicarbonate of soda on a bee sting neutralises the acidity of the sting
6. Rubbing a dock leaf on a nettle sting neutralises the sting
What happens when an acid and a metal react?
It produces a salt and hydrogen gas
Acid + Metal ---- Salt + Hydrogen Gas
State how to test for hydrogen?
Put a lit match to the top of the test tube with hydrogen in it and it will burn with a 'pop'
What would you like to do?
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