# AP Physics B - Thermo

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 Author: CCQuizbowl ID: 150039 Filename: AP Physics B - Thermo Updated: 2012-04-25 11:22:47 Tags: thermodynamics Folders: Description: Thermodynamics Show Answers:

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1. Kelvin conversion
2. Heat transfer equation
3. Heat necessary for phase change
• L is the latent heat of the phase change
4. Linear expansion
5. Volume expansion
6. Heat transfer rate
• k is the thermal conductivity, A is cross-sct area, L is length, T is temp. difference between two sides
7. Ideal gas law
• KELVINS
8. Boltzmann's constant
9. average kinetic energy of ideal gas
• KELVINS
10. root-mean-square speed
• KELVINS
• M is molar mass (in kg), mu is molecular mass
11. Liter
0.001 cubic meters
12. Ideal gas at STP
22.4 L at 1 atm and 273 K
13. Zeroth law of thermodynamics
• Transitive property of thermal equilibrium
• Heat flow = 0 in closed systems
14. Work done by ideal gas (heat must be removed)
• Positive when work is done on system, negative when system does work
15. Work when pressure changes
• Area under P-V curve
• Increasing volume gives negative work, decreasing volume gives positive work
16. First law of thermo
• No phase changes.
• For constant volume, W=0 and
17. Isochoric process
• No change in volume
• Change in internal energy due entirely to heat transfer
18. Isothermal process
No temperature changes
Q = 0
20. Efficiency of heat engines
• Q_H is heat energy discarded
21. Carnot cycle
1. Isothermal expansion (absorbs heat from high-energy source and expands; because temp doesn't increase, all heat goes into work performed by expanding gas)

2. Adiabatic expansion (system expands w/o exchanging heat w/ surroundings; it thus does negative work, so its internal energy and temperature decrease)

3. Isothermal compression - environment does work on gas, and it discards heat to low-temperature reservoir rather than increasing internal energy

4. Adiabatic compression - system compressed to initial state with no heat exchange, so its internal energy and temp increase
22. Carnot efficiency
• KELVINS

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