Biology3 Lab9

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Biology3 Lab9
2012-04-25 13:01:56
Biology3 Lab9

Biology3 Lab9
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  1. what does DNA stand for?
    deoxyribonucleic acid
  2. haploid
    cells containing only on set of chromosomes
  3. gamete
    haploid reproductive cells such as eggs or sperm
  4. chromatin
    a complex of uncoiled DNA and proteins within the nucleus
  5. diploid
    a cell containing two sets of chromosomes; one set inhereted from each parent
  6. fertilization
    fusion of a haploid sperm with a haploid egg
  7. zygote
    a fertilized egg
  8. what molecules make up the backbone of DNA?
    sugar and phosphate
  9. what molecules is a single nucleotide composed of?
    what type of bond holds the three components of the nucleotide together?
    • deoxyribose sugar
    • phosphate
    • nitrogenous base
    • ==> covalent bonds
  10. list the four nitrogenous bases of DNA:
    • Adenine
    • Guanine
    • Cytosine
    • Thymine
  11. transformation
    a change in the genes and the characteristics of an organism due to the inclusion of external DNA by a cell
  12. karyotype
    a display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by shape and size
  13. which bases are purines?
    • Adenine and Guanine
    • ==> larger two ring structure
  14. which bases are the pyrimidines?
    • Thymine and Cytosine
    • ==> smaller single ring structure
  15. each strand of the double-stranded helix is oriented in an opposite direction. this orientation is termed:
  16. autosome
    a chromosome not directly involved in determining the sex of an organism
  17. cell division:
    its three functions:
    • the reproduction of a cell
    • 1. growth of a new organism
    • 2. the replacement of old or damaged cells
    • 3. asexual reproduction
  18. mitosis
    the division of a single nucleus into two genetically identical daughter nuclei
  19. cytokinesis
    the division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter (new) cells
  20. the five phases of mitosis:
    • interphase
    • prophase
    • metaphase
    • anaphase
    • telophase
  21. interphase
    chromosomes exist as long thin threads of DNA and proteins tangled together in the nucleus
  22. prophase
    nuclear membrane dissipates, microtubules form to attach to the centromeres of each chromosome
  23. metaphase
    the microtubules have attached to the centromeres and arrange the chromosomes along the equator ("metaphase plate") of the cell
  24. anaphase
    • the centromere of each sister chromatid is pulled to the poles of the cell, each is now referred to as a chromosome
    • the microtubules drag the centromeres of each chromosome, making the chromosomes appear V-shaped.
    • by the end of anaphase, two identical complete sets of chromosomes have reached the poles
  25. telophase (cytokinesis)
    • begins with two groups of chromosomes at the opposite poles of the cell
    • the chromosomes begin to uncoil and relax
    • nuclear envelope begins to reform
    • cytokinesis begins - the division of the cytoplasm and a new cell plate is formed
  26. state two ways in which mitosis is different in animal cells than in plant cells:
    • 1. centrioles - anchor microtubules
    • 2. cleavage - no cell wall