d. Laissez-faire or non-directional leadership- Is described as inactive, passive, and permissive: offering few commands, questions, suggestions, or criticism. Although there are various degrees of nondirectional leadership, leadership participation is, in general, minimal.
- e. Situation leadership- Levels of direction and support vary according to the level of maturity of the employees or group. The leader assumes one of four styles.
- 1. Directive. A leadership style characterized by expanding of clear instructions and specific direction to immature employees.
- 2. Coaching. A leadership style charactrized by expanding twoway communication and helping maturing employees build confidence and motivation.
- 3. Supporting. A leadership “ “ active two-way communication and support of mature employees’ efforts to use their talents.
- 4. Delegating. A hands-off leadership style in which the highly mature employees are given responsibilities for carrying out plans and making task decisions.
- f. Transactional leadership- Represents the traditional manager focused on the day-to-day tasks of achieving organizational goals. The transactional leader understands and meets the needs of the group. Relationships with followers are based on an exchange for some resource valued by the follower. These incentives are used to promote loyalty and performance.