A&P Nutrition, Metabolism, and Body Temperature Regulation

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A&P Nutrition, Metabolism, and Body Temperature Regulation
2012-04-29 01:55:28
Nutrition Metabolism Body Temperature Regulation

A&P Nutrition, Metabolism, and Body Temperature Regulation
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  1. Nutrient
    A substance in food used by body for growth, maintenance, and repair
  2. Types of Nutrients
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • Vitamins
    • Minerals
    • Water
  3. Essential Nutrients
    Nutrients that cannot be made by the body (must get them from food)
  4. Carbohydrates (simple and complex)

    ~Dietary Sources & Major Uses~
    Dietary Sources: mostly from plants; grains, vegetables, fruit, sugar cane, sugar beets, honey, and milk

    Major Uses: production of energy and fiber
  5. Lipids (saturated, unsaturated, and trans fatty acid)

    ~ Dietary Sources & Major Uses~
    Dietary Sources: mostly animal but some plant sources; lard, meats, eggs, milk, chocolate, corn, soy, etc.

    Major Uses: concentrated source of energy, insulation, building of plasma membrane, bile salts, and steroid hormones
  6. Proteins (complete and incomplete)

    ~ Dietary Sources & Major Uses~
    Dietary Sources: meats, eggs, milk, nuts, seeds, grains, cereals, vegetables, and legumes

    Major Uses: structural materials of the body, enzymes, hormones, and energy production
  7. Vitamins
    • Biologically active organic compunds
    • Not used for energy and do not serve as building blocks
    • Too much can be as bad as too little
    • Most function as coenzymes or parts of coenzymes
    • Fat soluble and water soluble
  8. Minerals
    • Inorganic substances not used for fuel
    • Too much can be as bad as too little
    • Normal membrane function requires sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium
    • Normal muscle and neuron function as well as normal bone structure requires calcium
    • Components of such critical transport molecules such as hemoglobin
    • Other minerals are cofactors for enzymes
  9. Metabolism
    All chemical reactions of the body
  10. Anabolism
    Synthesis of simple substances into complex ones
  11. Catabolism
    Breakdown of complex substances into simpler ones or into energy
  12. Cellular Respiration
    Oxidation of glucose to produce ATP
  13. Aerobic Respiration
    A series of reactions that require oxygen to produce ATP
  14. Anaerobic Respiration
    A series of reactions that don't require oxygen (glycolysis) to produce ATP
  15. Oxidation-Reduction Reaction
    A reaction that couples the oxidation (loss of electrons) of one substance with the reduction (gain of electrons) of another substance
  16. Coenzyme
    Nonprotein substance associated with and activating an enzyme, typically a vitamin

    NAD+ and FAD
  17. Mechanisms of ATP Synthesis
    • Substrate-level Phosphorylation
    • Oxidtive Phosphorylation
  18. Substrate-level Phosphorylation
    The formation of high-energy phosphate bonds by phosphorylation of ADP to ATP (or GDP to GTP) coupled to cleavage of a high-energy metabolic intermediate

    Occurs during glycolysis and kreb's cycle
  19. Oxidative Phosphorylation
    Process of ATP synthesis during which an inorganic phosphate group is attached to ADP

    Occurs during electron transport chain within the mitochondria
  20. Glucose Phosphorylation

    ~Definition and Equation~
    • Carbohyrdrates being transformed to glucose
    • Glucose enters by facilitated diffusion
    • Insulin enhances the process

    Glucose + ATP --> glucose-6-PO4 + ADP
  21. Carbohydrate Metabolism (glucose oxidation) - Equation
    • C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6H2O + 6CO2 + 32 ATP + heat
    • Glucose Oxygen Water Carbon dioxide
  22. Glycolysis

    ~What it Uses & Makes~
    Anaerobic Process

    • Uses Makes
    • Glucose 2 Pyruvic Acids
    • 2 ADP + 4 ATP = net of 2 ATP
    • 2 NAD+ 2 NADH
    • 4 ADP
  23. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)

    ~What it Uses and Makes~
    • Uses Makes
    • 2 Pyruvate 6 CO2
    • 6 Oxygen
    • 2 FAD 2 FADH2
    • 8 NAD 8 NADH
    • 2 ADP + P 2 ATP
  24. Electron Transport Chain
    Aerobic Process

    Carries out the final catabolic reactions that occur on the mitochondrial cristae
  25. Oxidative Phosphorylation

    ~What it Makes and Uses~
    Aerobic Process

    • Uses Makes
    • 10 NADH 10 NAD
    • 2 FADH2 2 FAD
    • O2 H2O
    • 34 ADP + P +_ 34 ATP
  26. Sequence of Cellular Respiration
    Glucose NADH H+ electron transport chain proton gradient chain ATP
  27. Glycogenesis
    Formation of glycogen from glucose
  28. Glycogenolysis
    Breakdown of glycogen to glucose
  29. Gluconeogenesis
    Formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate molecules
  30. Lipid Metabolism
    Oxidation of glycerol and fatty acids
  31. Components of Lipid Metabolism
    • Beta oxidation
    • Lipogenesis
    • Lipolysis
    • Ketogenesis
    • Ketosis
  32. Beta Oxidation
    Conversion of fatty acids to acetyl CoA
  33. Lipogenesis
    Formation of lipids from acetyl CoA and glyceraldehyde phosphate
  34. Lipolysis
    Breakdown of lipids to fatty acids and glycerol
  35. Ketogenesis
    The process by which ketone bodies are produced as a result of fatty acid breakdown
  36. Ketosis
    Excess levels of ketone bodies in blood. Called ketoacidosis if blood pH is low
  37. Cellular Respiration - Definition
    Reactions that together complete the oxidation of glucose, yielding CO2, H2O, and ATP
  38. Glycolysis - Definition
    Conversion of glucose to pyruvic acid
  39. Krebs Cycle - Definition
    Complete breakdown of pyruvic acid to CO2, yielding small amounts of ATP and reduced coenzymes
  40. Electron Transport Chain - Definition
    Energy-yielding reactions that split H removed during oxidations to H+ and e- and create proton gradient used to bond ADP to Pi (forming ATP)
  41. Protein Metabolism
    Oxidation of amino acids
  42. Components of Protein Metabolism
    • Oxidation of amino acids
    • a. Transamination
    • b. Oxidative deamination
    • c. Keto acid modification
    • Protein Synthesis
  43. Transamination
    Transfer of an amine group from an amino acid to α-ketoglutaric acid, thereby transforming α-ketoglutaric acid to glutamic acid
  44. Oxidative Deamination
    Removal of an amine group from glutamic acid as ammonia and regeneration of α-ketoglutaric acid (NH3 is converted to urea by the liver)
  45. Keto Acid Modification
  46. Protein Synthesis
  47. Functions of Liver
    • Carbohydrate Metabolism
    • Fat Metabolism
    • Protein Metabolism
    • Vitamin/Mineral Storage
    • Biotransformation Functions
  48. Metabolic Role of the Liver – Carbohydrate Metabolism

    ~Metabolic Process Targeted & Functions~
    Process Targeted: important in maintaining blood glucose homeostasis

    • Functions:
    • · Converts galactose and fructose to glucose
    • · Glucose buffer function: stores glucose as glycogen when blood glucose levels are high; in response to hormonal controls, performs glycogenolysis and releases glucose to blood
    • · Gluconeogenesis: converts amino acids and glycerol to glucose when glycogen stores are exhausted and blood glucose levels are falling
    • · Converts glucose to fats for storage
  49. Metabolic Role of the Liver – Fat Metabolism
    ~Metabolic Process Targeted & Functions~
    Process Targeted: liver bears major responsibility of fat metabolism

    • Functions:
    • · Primary body site of beta oxidation
    • · Converts excess acetyl CoA to ketone bodies for release to tissue cells
    • · Stores fat
    • · Forms lipoproteins for transport of fatty acids, fats, and cholesterol to and from tissues
    • · Synthesizes cholesterol from acetyl CoA; catabolizes cholesterol to bile salts, which are secreted in bile
  50. Metabolic Role of the Liver – Protein Metabolism

    ~Metabolic Process Targeted & Functions~
    Process Targeted: without protein metabolism, many essential clotting proteins would not be made, and ammonia would not be disposed of

    • Functions:
    • · Deaminates amino acids (required for their conversion to glucose or use for ATP synthesis); amount of deamination that occurs outside the liver is unimportant
    • · Forms urea for removal of ammonia from body; inability to perform this function (e.g., in cirrhosis or hepatitis) results in accumulation of ammonia in blood
    • · Forms most plasma proteins (exceptions are gamma globulins and some hormones and enzymes); plasma protein depletion causes rapid mitosis of the hepatocytes and actual growth of liver, which is coupled with increase in synthesis of plasma proteins until blood values are again normal
    • · Transamination: intraconversion of nonessential amino acids; amount that occurs outside liver is inconsequential
  51. Metabolic Role of the Liver – Vitamin/Mineral Storage

    ~ Functions~
    • · Stores vitamin A (1-2 years’ supply)
    • · Stores sizable amounts of vitamins D and B12 (1-4 months’ supply)
    • · Stores iron; other than iron bound to hemoglobin, most of body’s supply is stored in liver as ferritin until needed; releases iron to blood as blood levels drop
  52. Metabolic Role of the Liver – Biotransformation

    • · Metabolizes alcohol and drugs by performing synthetic reactions yielding inactive products for excretion by the kidneys and nonsynthetic reactions that may result in products which are more active, changed in activity, or less active
    • · Processes bilirubin resulting from RBC breakdown and excretes bile pigments in bile
    • · Metabolizes bloodborne hormones to forms that can be excreted in urine
  53. Cholesterol Metabolism and Regulation of Blood Cholesterol Levels – LDL
    • LDL levels 130 or above = bad because when LDLs are excessive, potentially lethal cholesterol deposits are laid down in the artery walls
    • LDL Goal = 100 or less Can’t be too low
  54. Cholesterol Metabolism and Regulation of Blood Cholesterol Levels – HDL
    • HDLs are considered good because the transported cholesterol is destined for degradation.
    • Average levels in males: 40-50
    • Average levels in females: 50-60
    • < 40 = undesirable
    • >60 = thought to protect against heart disease
    • Can’t be too high