Speech Science Final

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ggarriott
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150143
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Speech Science Final
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2012-04-25 20:52:20
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Speech Science Final
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Speech Science Final
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  1. Force acting perpendicularly on a surface.
    Pressure
  2. Air pressure all around us.
    Atmospheric pressure
  3. Pressure that is higher than atmospheric pressure.
    Positive pressure
  4. Pressure that is lower than atmospheric pressure.
    Negative pressure
  5. Total absence of air, and thus a total absence of pressure.
    Vacuum
  6. Movement of air through a particular area in a certain interval of time.
    Flow
  7. Rate of flow
    Volume Velocity
  8. Difference between high and low pressure areas that causes air to flow between these areas (the way respiration works).
    Driving Pressure
  9. Flow of air in which molecules move in a parallel manner at the same speed.
    Laminar flow
  10. Irregular flow with random variations in pressure..
    Turbulent flow
  11. States that pressure varies inversely with volume, given a constant temperature.
    Boyle's Law
  12. There is a proportional relationship between air pressure and _______.
    Density
  13. Relatively constant pressure that is around us at any particular place or time. (relevant to speech)
    Ambient pressure
  14. For a sound to be generated, the __________ pressure must be disturbed.
    Ambient
  15. For changes to occur in the ______ pressure, some force must disturb the air molecules. This initiates a ________ ______.
    • Ambient
    • Sound wave
  16. Area of positive pressure
    Compression
  17. Area of negative pressure
    Rarefaction
  18. Compression of air moves the TM ________ slightly.
    Inward
  19. Rarefaction allows the TM to move slightly ________.
    Outward
  20. Vibration of the TM sets bones in middle ear into vibration which sets the ______ in the inner ear into vibration resulting in stimulation of the _______ _______.
    • Fluid
    • Hair cells
  21. Triggering of hair cells in the inner ear generates a _______ ______ which is conducted along the _______ pathway to the appropriate areas of nervous system and is interpreted by brain as _______.
    • Nerve impulse
    • Auditory
    • Sound
  22. Restoring force that brings an object back to original size, shape, or position after being displaced or deformed.
    Elasticity
  23. States that the restoring force is proportional to the distance of displacement and acts in the opposite direction.
    Hooke's Law
  24. Tendency of matter to remain at rest or motion unless acted on by an outside force.
    Inertia
  25. When air molecules have been displaced by a disturbance, they swing back/forth through their original positions due to the interaction of _________ and _______.
    • Elasticity
    • Intertia
  26. Because of frictional resistance of air, each time molecules move back/forth around rest positions, they do so with less __________.
    Amplitute
  27. Amount of displacement of an object from its rest position and is determined by the amount of energy involved in the movement.
    Amplitude
  28. Decrease in amplitude indicates a decrease in energy of sound and causes molecules to settle down to their original positions.
    Damping
  29. Disturbances that move through a medium and are caused by small motions of individual particles of the medium (molecules) resulting in changes of the medium transmitted for long distances.
    Waves
  30. Area of compression around vibrating source is followed by an area of rarefaction followed by compression, another rarefaction, etc. spreading outward in a ________.
    Sphere
  31. Outermost area of the sphere is called the _________. (like in a pond)
    Wavefront
  32. The further changes in air pressure travel from the source, the more ________ they become.
    Damped
  33. Graph with time on horizontal axis and amplitude on the vertical axis that's used to represent pressure changes over time.
    Waveform
  34. What is represented on the horizontal axis of a waveform?
    Time
  35. What is represented on the vertical axis of a waveform?
    Amplitude
  36. One back/forth movement of molecule.
    Cycle
  37. Cycles of vibration are measured in ________.
    Seconds
  38. Number of cycles per second at which object/or air vibrate.
    Frequency
  39. Time that each cycle takes to occur.
    Period
  40. There is a reciprical relationship between frequency and period expressed by the formula _______.
    F=1/t
  41. Wave in which each cycle takes the same amount of time to occur.
    Periodic wave
  42. Periodic waves have a ________ tone.
    Musical
  43. Wave in which cycles don't take same amount of time to occur.
    Aperiodic wave
  44. Aperiodic waves sound like _______.
    Noise
  45. How fast a wave moves depending on the density and elastic properties of the medium through with it's moving.
    Velocity
  46. Sound travels _____ times as quickly through water as throug air and even more quicly through some solids like _______.
    • 4
    • Steel
  47. The _______ the air, the more quickly sound is transmitted.
    Warmer
  48. ______ is the least efficient medium for waves of sound.
    Air
  49. The larger/more massive the source of sound, the more _______ it will vibrate
    Slowly
  50. Speed of sound depends not on the frequency of the sound, but on the __________ of the _______.
    • Characteristics
    • Medium
  51. Distance in meters or centimeters covered by one complete cycle of a wave and is measured as distance covered by wave from any starting point to the same point on the next cycle.
    Wavelength
  52. Higher frequency =_______ period duration and wavelength.
    Shorter
  53. Lower frequency =_______ period duration and wavelength.
    Longer
  54. Sound wave that's generated, travels, and then hits a boundary. Can be transmitted, absorbed, or reflected.
    Incident wave
  55. Damping of a wave, with diminishing changes in air pressure due to friction.
    Absorption
  56. Wave collides with a surface and travels back toward source and depends on the type of surface.
    Reflection
  57. Combining of waves in terms of areas of high and low pressure.
    Interference
  58. Interference that results in increased amplitude. Waves combine and increase the amplitude of the resulting wave.
    Constructive interference
  59. Interference that results in decreased amplitude. Waves combine and decrease the amplitude of the resulting wave.
    Destructive interference
  60. Process generating a sound that lasts slightly longer due to interaction of incident and reflected waves.
    Reverberation
  61. Smooth back/forth movement with characteristic pattern of acceleration through the rest position and deceleration at the endpoints of movement (Swing).
    Simple Harmonic Motion
  62. Sound with only one frequency heard as a thin, clear tone. An object vibrating in simple harmonic motion produces this.
    Pure tone
  63. Sound wave consisting of two or more frequencies (common). There are 2 types of these.
    Complex sound
  64. Complex sounds that consist of a series of frequencies that are systematically related to each other.
    Periodic complex sounds
  65. Lowest frequency of a periodic complex sound is the _______ ________, and frequencies above it are called ________.
    • Fundamental frequency (FO)
    • Harmonics
  66. Harmonics are the ______ _______ _______ of the F0.
    Whole number multiples
  67. Complex tones have a ________ ______ and sound richer and more resonant than a pure tone.
    Musical tone
  68. Complex sounds that consist of two or more frequencies, but are systematically not related to each other. There are 2 types of these.
    Aperiodic complex sounds
  69. Aperiodic waves sound like _______.
    Noise
  70. Aperiodic complex sound that's able to be prolonged.
    Continuous aperiodic complex sound
  71. Aperiodic complex sounds that are extremely brief in duration.
    Transient sounds
  72. Shows amplitude of air pressure changes over time. Midlevel line represents atmospheric pressure/baseline pressure.
    Waveform
  73. When the graph line of a waveforem goes above baseline it represents an increase in pressure known as _______.
    Compression
  74. When the graph line of a waveforem goes below baseline it represents an decrease in pressure known as _______.
    Rarefaction
  75. Graph with frequencies of complex periodic sounds are depicted as vertical lines.
    Line Spectrum
  76. Height of line on a line specturm indicates the ________ of the component frequency.
    Amplitude
  77. In a line spectrum, these are represented by a single line.
    Pure tones
  78. In a line spectrum, these are represented by more than one line.
    Complex sounds
  79. What respresentation is not shown on a line spectrum graph?
    Time
  80. Envelope line that connects frequencies of a complex sound represented on a spectrum.
    Continuous Spectrum
  81. What is not represented on a continuous spectrum graph?
    Duration
  82. The _________ of a vibrating object depends on its physical characteristics: length, mass, and tension.
    Frequency
  83. In regard to frequency of vibration in relationship to speed:

    Longer source-
    Massive =
    Tense=
    • Long--Slow
    • Massive--Slow
    • Tense--Fast
  84. What is the range of frequencies that humans are capable of perceiving?
    20 to 20,000 Hz
  85. Frequencies below the human range of hearing.
    Subsonic
  86. Frequencies above the human range of hearing.
    Supersonic
  87. Measurement of pressure changes that constitute sound.
    Amplitude
  88. Power of sound
    Intensity
  89. ___________ of an object can occur freely or by force.
    Vibration
  90. Vibration without interference at a rate determined by its physical characteristics, including its mass, tension, and stiffness.
    Free Vibration
  91. Frequency at which an object vibrates depending on its physical characteristics.
    Resonant frequency
  92. Object forced to vibrate in response to the vibrations of another object due to the RFs of both objects being reasonably close to each other.(opera singer/glass)
    Forced vibration
  93. 2 tuning forks where the vibrations of one push against the other to set it into vibration results in sound from both fors being louder than the sound generated by one alone. This is an example of __________ __________.
    Constructive Interference
  94. The ________ the RF of the driving force is to the RF of the resonator, the greater the amplitude of the response of the resonator.
    Closer
  95. Resonators that don't contain a body of air; the actual object itself is set into vibration (tuning fork 2)
    Mechanical Resonators
  96. Air filled container in which the air is forced to vibrate in response to another vibration (speech production).
    Acoustic Resonator
  97. RF of an air filled container depends on volume.
    Smaller volume resonates at ________ frequencies.
    Larger volume resonates at _________ frequencies.
    • Higher
    • Lower
  98. Acoustic resonator acts as a __________ by amplifying and transmitting those frequencies close to its own RF and attenuating/preventing frequencies farther away from its own RF being transmitted.
    Filter
  99. Range of frequencies that a resonator will transmit determined by the shape/physical characterics of container open/closed, etc.
    Bandwidth
  100. _______________ tubes will only transmit a narrow range of frequencies, whereas resonators that are more irregular in shape have wider bandwidths.
    Symmetrical
  101. A symmetrical tube is an example of a _________ tuned resonator.
    Narrowly-tuned resonator
  102. Eardrums and Vocal tracts are an example of a __________ tuned resonator.
    Broadly tuned resonator
  103. A narrowly tuned resonator responds ________ to the driving frequencies.
    Slowly
  104. A broadly tuned resonator responds ________ to the driving frequencies.
    Very quickly
  105. Frequency at which a resonant system is unresponsive; the point at which the intensity transmission is reduced to one-half; the frequency at which the intensity is less than ghe peak intensity of the RF.
    Cutoff Frequency
  106. Graph displaying the frequency response of a resonant system; it shows the way a resonator vibrates in response to any applied frequency.
    Resonance curve/(transfer function)
  107. Sounds that are used to set a resonator in motion are known as the ______ to the resonator.
    Input
  108. Way in which a resonator vibrates in response to sounds is known as its _______.
    Output
  109. This is the same as natural or resonant frequency; the RF of the system that results in the greatest amplitude of vibration of the resonator and depends on the physical characteristics of the resonator such as its length and shape.
    Center Frequency
  110. Rate at which the resonator's amplitude of response is attenuated and describes how rapidly the resonator decreases in its amplitude in response to different frequencies and is measured in decibels per octave.
    Attenuation Rate/Slope
  111. Resonator that transmits acoustic energy below a specific upper cutoff frequency.
    Low-pass filter
  112. Resonator that transmits acoustic energy above a specific lower cutoff frequency.
    High-pass filter
  113. Resonator that transmits acoustic energy in a range of frequencies between an upper and a lower cutoff frequency.
    Band-pass filter
  114. The vocal tract is an example of a _________ filter.
    Band-pass filter
  115. Computer-based transducer that changes acoustic signal into corresponding electrical signals.
    Visi-Pitch
  116. F0 measured in a particular task like sustaining a vowel, reading aloud, or conversational speech that is averaged over the speaking time of that task.
    Average Fundamental Frequency
  117. When average F0 is measured in an oral reading or conversational speech task, it is often referred to as the paerson's _________ ___________ ___________.
    Speaking fundamental frequency (SFF)
  118. Infants have a _______ F0.
    Very high
  119. At what age range do both males and females have similar F0 averages?
    3 to 10 years old
  120. Average F0 remains fairly stable for adults until the __________ decades.
    6th and 7th
  121. Why do males' average F0 typically increase as they age?
    • Degenerative changes in larynx
    • Thinning of vocal folds
  122. Why do females' average F0 tend to decrease with age?
    • Development of more massive vocal folds
    • Hormonal changes
  123. How is F0 variability measured?
    • SD from the average F0
    • (mother nature?)
  124. When F0 variability is measured in hertz, it is called _______.
    F0SD--Fundamental Frequency Standard Deviation
  125. F0SD in normal conversationl speech is around ________ Hz.
    20 to 35 Hz
  126. When F0 variability is measured in semitones, it is called _______.
    Pitch Stigma
  127. What is considered normal pitch stigma for normal speakers during conversation?
    2 to 4 semitones
  128. Measure of F0 variability measuring the difference between the highest and lowest F0 in a sample of speech.
    Range
  129. This can be expressed in hertz or can be converted to semitones and octaves.
    Range
  130. Who have the greatest range of frequencies?
    • Infants
    • Vocalizations include squeaks and cries
  131. Which gender uses a wider range of F0?
    • Female
    • Sociocultural
  132. What is an important indicator of normal or disordered speech?
    • F0 variability--normal
    • Reduced F0 range--disordered
  133. Complete range of frequencies that an individual can generate.
    Maximum Phonational Frequency Range (MPFR)
  134. Range of F0 a person generally uses in connected speech.
    F0 Measure
  135. MPFR is often measured in ______ or ________.
    • Semitones
    • Octaves
  136. ______ is a useful measure because it reflects both physiological limits of a speaker's voice and the physical condition of the person's vocal mechanism and basic vocal ability.
    MPFR
  137. Age nor sex greatly affect MPFR but ______ ______ does. A voice problem is suspected in a speaker who has a _________ MPFR.
    • Physical condition
    • Reduced
  138. Overall level of amplitude during a speech task such as oral reading, conversation, or sustaining a vowel. This corresponds to how loud a person is perceived to be.
    Average Amplitude Level
  139. What is the normal range of average amplitude level in conversational speech?
    • 65 to 80 dB SPL
    • Generally 70 dB
  140. A speech disorder resulting from _________ disease results in a reduced amplitude level.
    Nerologic (Parkinson's)
  141. Standard deviation of amplitude for a neutral, unemotional sentence is around ____ dB SPL.
    10
  142. Physiological range of the vocal amplitudes that a speaker can generate, from the softest phonation that's not a whisper to the loudest shout.
    Dynamic Range
  143. A ________ dynamic range may prevent a person from using stress and emphasis patterns appropriately, reducing the flexibility of spoken language.
    Restricted
  144. Dynamic range tends to be greatest for F0 in the _______.
    Midrange
  145. Graph that plots a person's phonational range against his dynamic range.
    Voice Range Profile (VRP)
  146. In a VRP, what is plotted on the vertical axis in dB SPL?
    Dynamic Range
  147. In a VRP, what is plotted on the horizontal azis in hertz?
    F0
  148. The ________ contour of a VRP whows maximum intensity at each selected frequency.
    Upper
  149. The ________ contour of a VRP whows minimum intensity at each selected frequency.
    Lower
  150. What frequency range do humans have a far greater dynamic range?
    Middle of frequency range
  151. What is thought of as a snapshot of vocal fold behavior at one moment in time?
    Voice Range Profile (VRP)
  152. Person having difficulty achieving normal frequency and amplitude ranges will demonstrate a _________ VRP, with the upper and lower contours __________ than normal.
    • Constricted/compressed
    • Closer together
  153. Children demonstrate a somewhat ________ VRP.
    Compressed

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