Pressure that is higher than atmospheric pressure.
Pressure that is lower than atmospheric pressure.
Total absence of air, and thus a total absenceof pressure.
Movement of air through a particular area in a certain interval of time.
Rate of flow
Difference between high and low pressure areas that causes air to flow between these areas (the way respiration works).
Flow of air in which molecules move in a parallelmanner at the same speed.
Irregular flow with random variations in pressure..
States that pressure varies inverselywith volume, given a constant temperature.
There is a proportional relationshipbetween air pressure and _______.
Relatively constant pressurethat is around usat any particular place or time. (relevant to speech)
For a sound to be generated, the __________ pressure must be disturbed.
For changes to occur in the ______ pressure, some force must disturb the air molecules. This initiates a ________ ______.
Area of positive pressure
Area of negative pressure
Compressionof air moves the TM ________ slightly.
Rarefaction allows the TM to move slightly ________.
Vibration of the TMsets bones in middle ear into vibration which sets the ______ in the inner ear into vibration resulting in stimulation of the _______ _______.
Triggering of hair cellsin the inner ear generates a _______ ______ which is conducted along the _______ pathway to the appropriate areas of nervous system and is interpreted by brain as _______.
Restoring forcethat brings an object back to original size, shape, or position after being displaced or deformed.
States that the restoring force is proportional to the distance of displacement and acts in the opposite direction.
Tendency of matterto remain at rest or motion unless acted on by an outside force.
When air moleculeshave been displaced by a disturbance, they swingback/forth through their original positions due to the interaction of _________ and _______.
Because of frictional resistanceof air, each time molecules move back/forth around rest positions, they do so with less __________.
Amount of displacementof an object from its rest position and is determined by the amount of energyinvolved in the movement.
Decrease in amplitudeindicates a decrease in energy of sound and causes molecules to settle down to their original positions.
Disturbances that move through a medium and are caused by small motions of individual particles of the medium (molecules) resulting in changes of the medium transmitted for long distances.
Area of compressionaround vibrating source is followed by an area of rarefaction followed by compression, another rarefaction, etc. spreading outward in a ________.
Outermost areaof the sphere is called the _________. (like in a pond)
The further changes in air pressure travel from the source, the more ________ they become.
Graph with time on horizontal axis and amplitude on the vertical axis that's used to represent pressure changesover time.
What is represented on the horizontal axis of a waveform?
What is represented on the vertical axis of a waveform?
One back/forth movement of molecule.
Cycles of vibrationare measured in ________.
Number of cycles per secondat which object/or air vibrate.
Time that each cycle takesto occur.
There is a reciprical relationship between frequency and period expressed by the formula _______.
Wave in which each cycle takes the sameamount of time to occur.
Periodicwaves have a ________ tone.
Wave in which cycles don't take same amountof time to occur.
Aperiodic waves sound like _______.
How fasta wave moves depending on the density and elastic properties of the medium through with it's moving.
Sound travels_____ times as quickly through water as throug air and even more quicly through some solids like _______.
The _______ the air, the more quickly sound is transmitted.
______ is the least efficient mediumfor waves of sound.
The larger/more massive the source of sound, the more _______ it will vibrate
Speed of sounddepends not on the frequency of the sound, but on the __________ of the _______.
Distance in meters or centimeterscovered by one complete cycle of a wave and is measured as distance covered by wave from any starting point to the same point on the next cycle.
Higher frequency=_______ period duration and wavelength.
Lower frequency =_______ period duration and wavelength.
Sound wavethat's generated, travels, and then hits a boundary. Can be transmitted, absorbed, or reflected.
Damping of a wave, with diminishing changes in air pressure due to friction.
Wave collides with a surface and travels backtoward source and depends on the type of surface.
Combining of wavesin terms of areas of high and low pressure.
Interference that results in increased amplitude. Waves combine and increase the amplitude of the resulting wave.
Interference that results in decreased amplitude. Waves combine and decrease the amplitude of the resulting wave.
Process generating a sound that lasts slightly longerdue to interaction of incident and reflected waves.
Smooth back/forth movementwith characteristic pattern of acceleration through the rest position and deceleration at the endpoints of movement (Swing).
Simple Harmonic Motion
Sound with only one frequencyheard as a thin, clear tone. An object vibrating in simple harmonic motion produces this.
Sound wave consisting of two or more frequencies(common). There are 2 types of these.
Complex sounds that consist of a series of frequencies that are systematically relatedto each other.
Periodic complex sounds
Lowest frequency of a periodic complex sound is the _______ ________, and frequencies above it are called ________.
Fundamental frequency (FO)
Harmonics are the ______ _______ _______ of the F0.
Whole number multiples
Complex toneshave a ________ ______ and sound richer and more resonant than a pure tone.
Complex sounds that consist of two or more frequencies, but are systematically not relatedto each other. There are 2 types of these.
Aperiodic complex sounds
Aperiodic waves sound like _______.
Aperiodic complex sound that's able to be prolonged.
Continuous aperiodic complex sound
Aperiodic complex sounds that are extremely briefin duration.
Shows amplitude of air pressure changesover time. Midlevel line represents atmospheric pressure/baseline pressure.
When the graph line of a waveforem goes above baseline it represents an increase in pressureknown as _______.
When the graph line of a waveforem goes below baseline it represents an decrease in pressureknown as _______.
Graph with frequencies of complex periodic sounds are depicted as vertical lines.
Height of line on a line specturm indicates the ________ of the component frequency.
In a line spectrum, these are represented by a single line.
In a line spectrum, these are represented by more than one line.
What respresentation is not shownon a line spectrumgraph?
Envelope line that connects frequenciesof a complex sound represented on a spectrum.
What is not represented on a continuous spectrum graph?
The _________ of a vibrating object depends on its physical characteristics: length, mass, and tension.
In regard to frequency of vibration in relationship to speed:
What is the range of frequenciesthat humans are capable of perceiving?
20 to 20,000 Hz
Frequencies below the human range of hearing.
Frequencies above the human range of hearing.
Measurement of pressure changes that constitute sound.
Power of sound
___________ of an object can occur freely or by force.
Vibration without interferenceat a rate determined by its physical characteristics, including its mass, tension, and stiffness.
Frequency at which an object vibrates depending on its physical characteristics.
Object forced to vibrate in response to the vibrations of another object due to the RFs of both objects being reasonably closeto each other.(opera singer/glass)
2 tuning forkswhere the vibrations of one push against the other to set it into vibration results in sound from both fors being louder than the sound generated by one alone. This is an example of __________ __________.
The ________ the RF of the driving force is to the RF of the resonator, the greater the amplitudeof the response of the resonator.
Resonators that don't contain a body of air; the actual object itself is set into vibration (tuning fork 2)
Air filled containerin which the air is forced to vibrate in response to another vibration (speech production).
RF of an air filled container depends on volume. Smallervolume resonates at ________ frequencies. Largervolume resonates at _________ frequencies.
Acoustic resonatoracts as a __________ by amplifying and transmitting those frequencies close to its own RF and attenuating/preventing frequencies farther away from its own RF being transmitted.
Range of frequencies that a resonator will transmit determined by the shape/physical characterics of container open/closed, etc.
_______________ tubes will only transmit a narrow rangeof frequencies, whereas resonators that are more irregular in shape have wider bandwidths.
A symmetrical tubeis an example of a _________ tuned resonator.
Eardrumsand Vocal tracts are an example of a __________ tuned resonator.
Broadly tuned resonator
A narrowly tuned resonatorresponds ________ to the driving frequencies.
A broadly tuned resonatorresponds ________ to the driving frequencies.
Frequency at which a resonant system is unresponsive; the point at which the intensity transmission is reduced to one-half; the frequency at which the intensity is less than ghe peak intensity of the RF.
Graph displaying the frequency responseof a resonantsystem; it shows the way a resonator vibrates in response to any applied frequency.
Resonance curve/(transfer function)
Sounds that are used to set a resonator in motionare known as the ______ to the resonator.
Way in which a resonator vibrates in response to soundsis known as its _______.
This is the same as natural or resonant frequency; the RF of the system that results in the greatest amplitude of vibrationof the resonator and depends on the physical characteristics of the resonator such as its length and shape.
Rate at which the resonator's amplitude of response is attenuated and describes how rapidly the resonator decreases in its amplitude in response to different frequencies and is measured in decibels per octave.
Resonator that transmits acoustic energy below a specific upper cutoff frequency.
Resonator that transmits acoustic energy above a specific lower cutoff frequency.
Resonator that transmits acoustic energy in a range of frequencies between an upper and a lower cutoff frequency.
The vocal tractis an example of a _________ filter.
Computer-based transducerthat changes acoustic signal into corresponding electrical signals.
F0 measuredin a particular task like sustaining a vowel, reading aloud, or conversational speech that is averaged over the speaking time of that task.
Average Fundamental Frequency
When average F0is measured in an oral reading or conversational speech task, it is often referred to as the paerson's _________ ___________ ___________.
Speaking fundamental frequency (SFF)
Infants have a _______ F0.
At what age rangedo both males and femaleshave similar F0 averages?
3 to 10 years old
Average F0 remains fairly stablefor adults until the __________ decades.
6th and 7th
Why do males' average F0typically increase as they age?
Degenerative changes in larynx
Thinning of vocal folds
Why do females' average F0tend to decrease with age?
Development of more massive vocal folds
How is F0 variabilitymeasured?
SD from the average F0
When F0 variability is measured in hertz, it is called _______.
F0SD--Fundamental Frequency Standard Deviation
F0SD in normal conversationl speech is around ________ Hz.
20 to 35 Hz
When F0 variability is measured in semitones, it is called _______.
What is considered normal pitch stigmafor normal speakers during conversation?
2 to 4 semitones
Measure of F0 variability measuring the differencebetween the highest and lowest F0 in a sample of speech.
This can be expressed in hertz or can be converted to semitones and octaves.
Who have the greatest rangeof frequencies?
Vocalizations include squeaks and cries
Which gender uses a wider range of F0?
What is an important indicatorof normal or disordered speech?
Reduced F0 range--disordered
Complete rangeof frequencies that an individual can generate.
Maximum Phonational Frequency Range (MPFR)
Range of F0 a person generally usesin connected speech.
MPFR is often measured in ______ or ________.
______ is a useful measure because it reflects both physiological limits of a speaker's voice and the physical condition of the person's vocal mechanism and basic vocal ability.
Age nor sex greatly affect MPFR but ______ ______ does. A voice problem is suspected in a speaker who has a _________ MPFR.
Overall level of amplitudeduring a speech task such as oral reading, conversation, or sustaining a vowel. This corresponds to how loud a person is perceived to be.
Average Amplitude Level
What is the normal rangeof average amplitude level in conversational speech?
65 to 80 dB SPL
Generally 70 dB
A speech disorder resulting from _________ disease results in a reduced amplitude level.
Standard deviation of amplitudefor a neutral, unemotional sentence is around ____ dB SPL.
Physiological range of the vocal amplitudesthat a speaker can generate, from the softest phonation that's not a whisper to the loudest shout.
A ________ dynamic range may prevent a person from using stress and emphasis patternsappropriately, reducing the flexibility of spoken language.
Dynamic rangetends to be greatest for F0 in the _______.
Graph that plots a person's phonational rangeagainst his dynamic range.
Voice Range Profile (VRP)
In a VRP, what is plotted on the vertical axis in dB SPL?
In a VRP, what is plotted on the horizontal azis in hertz?
The ________ contour of a VRP whows maximum intensity at each selected frequency.
The ________ contour of a VRP whows minimum intensity at each selected frequency.
What frequency rangedo humans have a far greater dynamic range?
Middle of frequency range
What is thought of as a snapshot of vocal fold behaviorat one moment in time?
Voice Range Profile (VRP)
Person having difficulty achieving normal frequency and amplitude ranges will demonstrate a _________ VRP, with the upper and lower contours __________ than normal.