Biology Chapter 11 Terms

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ndumas2
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150152
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Biology Chapter 11 Terms
Updated:
2012-04-25 19:26:32
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Biology 1001 Chapter 11
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Chapter 11 terms Bio1001
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  1. a nitrogenous base found in both DNA and RNA; abbreviated as A.
    adenine (A)
  2. a virus specialized to attack bacteria.
    bacteriophage
  3. one of the nitrogen-containing, single- or double-ringed structures that distinguishes one nucleotide from another. In DNA, the bases are adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine.
    base
  4. in nucleic acids, bases that pair by hydrogen bonding. In DNA, adenine is complementary to thymine and guanine is complementary to cytosine; in RNA, adenine is complementary to uracil, and guanine to cytosine.
    complementary base pair
  5. a nitrogenous base found in both DNA and RNA; abbreviated as C.
    cytosine (C)
  6. a mutation in which one or more pairs of nucleotides are removed from a gene.
    deletion mutation
  7. a molecule composed of deoxyribose nucleotides; contains the genetic information of all living cells.
    deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
  8. an enzyme that helps unwind the DNA double helix during DNA replication.
    DNA helicase
  9. an enzyme that bonds the terminal sugar in one DNA strand to the terminal phosphate in a second DNA strand, creating a single strand with a continuous sugar-phosphate backbone.
    DNA ligase
  10. an enzyme that bonds DNA nucleotides together into a continuous strand, using a preexisting DNA strand as a template.
    DNA polymerase
  11. the copying of the double-stranded DNA molecule, producing two identical DNA double helices.
    DNA replication
  12. the shape of the two-stranded DNA molecule; similar to a ladder twisted lengthwise into a corkscrew shape.
    double helix
  13. nucleotides that have not been joined together to form a DNA or RNA strand.
    free nucleotides
  14. a nitrogenous base found in both DNA and RNA; abbreviated as G.
    guanine (G)
  15. a mutation in which one or more pairs of nucleotides are inserted into a gene.
    insertion mutation
  16. a mutation that occurs when a piece of DNA is cut out of a chromosome, turned around, and reinserted into the gap.
    inversion
  17. a change in the base sequence of DNA in a gene; normally refers to a genetic change significant enough to alter the appearance or function of the organism.
    mutation
  18. a subunit of which nucleic acids are composed; a phosphate group bonded to a sugar (deoxyribose in DNA), which is in turn bonded to a nitrogen-containing base (adenine, guanine, cytosine, or thymine in DNA).
    nucleotide
  19. a mutation in which a single base pair in DNA has been changed.
    nucleotide substitution
  20. a mutation in which a single base pair in DNA has been changed.
    point mutation
  21. a single polymer of nucleotides; DNA is composed of two strands wound about each other in a double helix; RNA is usually single stranded.
    strand
  22. a chain of sugars and phosphates in DNA and RNA; the sugar of one nucleotide bonds to the phosphate of the next nucleotide in a DNA or RNA strand. The bases in DNA or RNA are attached to the sugars of the backbone.
    sugar-phosphate backbone
  23. a nitrogenous base found only in DNA; abbreviated as T.
    thymine (T)
  24. a mutation that occurs when a piece of DNA is removed from one chromosome and attached to another chromosome.
    translocation

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