Biology Chapter 13 terms

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Biology Chapter 13 terms
2012-04-25 19:34:15
Biology 1001 Chapter 13

Chapter 13 terms
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  1. a procedure for sampling the amniotic fluid surrounding a fetus A sterile needle is inserted through the abdominal wall, uterus, and amniotic sac of a pregnant woman, and 10 to 20 milliliters of amniotic fluid are withdrawn. Various tests may be performed on the fluid and the fetal cells suspended in it to provide information on the developmental and genetic state of the fetus.
  2. any industrial or commercial use or alteration of organisms, cells, or biological molecules to achieve specific practical goals.
  3. a procedure for sampling cells from the chorionic villi produced by a fetus A tube is inserted into the uterus of a pregnant woman, and a small sample of villi is suctioned off for genetic and biochemical analyses.
    chorionic villus sampling
  4. a sequence of nucleotides that is complementary to the nucleotide sequence in a gene under study; used to locate a given gene during gel electrophoresis or other methods of DNA analysis.
    DNA probe
  5. the pattern of short tandem repeats of specific DNA segments; using a standardized set of 13 short tandem repeats, DNA profiles identify individual people with great accuracy.
    DNA profile
  6. a technique in which molecules (such as DNA fragments) are placed in wells in a thin sheet of gelatinous material and exposed to an electric field; the molecules migrate through the gel at a rate determined by certain characteristics, most commonly size.
    gel electrophoresis
  7. the modification of the genetic material of an organism, usually using recombinant DNA techniques.
    genetic engineering
  8. a small, circular piece of DNA located in the cytoplasm of many bacteria; normally does not carry genes required for the normal functioning of the bacterium but may carry genes that assist bacterial survival in certain environments, such as a gene for antibiotic resistance.
  9. DNA that has been altered by the addition of DNA from a different organism, typically from a different species.
    recombinant DNA
  10. an enzyme, normally isolated from bacteria, that cuts double-stranded DNA at a specific nucleotide sequence; the nucleotide sequence that is cut differs for different restriction enzymes.
    restriction enzyme
  11. a DNA sequence consisting of a short sequence of nucleotides (usually 2 to 5 nucleotides in length) repeated multiple times, with all of the repetitions side by side on a chromosome; variations in the number of repeats of a standardized set of 13 STRs produce DNA profiles used to
    identify people by their DNA.
    short tandem repeat (STR)
  12. a method of acquiring new genes, whereby DNA from one bacterium (normally released after the death of the bacterium) becomes incorporated into the DNA of another, living, bacterium.
  13. referring to an animal or a plant that contains DNA derived from another species, usually inserted into the organism through genetic engineering.
  14. Genetically Modified Organism (GMO)
  15. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
  16. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP)