Anthro 202 Test

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Anthro 202 Test
2012-04-25 23:22:29
old world civ

Old World Civilizations
Show Answers:

  1. Characteristics of Civilizations
    Cities, Ceremonial Architecture, Complex Rituals, Specialized Labor, Social Spaces, Social Stratification, Writing or Record Keeping
  2. Environmental Hypotheses on Rise of Civilizations
    fluctuating environment- place control of surpluses in hands of the ruling class
  3. Cultural Hypotheses on Rise of Civilizations
    control of information- held by elite classes leads to increasing in the complexity of societies
  4. Earliest Cities
    • long history of permanent settlements in the Near East and Mesopotamia
    • annual floods deposit nutrients and irrigation helps water flow
    • grew wheat, millet, barley, dates, palm, veggies, pigs, and sheep
  5. Proto Cities
    • Jericho
    • Catalhoyuk, Turkey
  6. Mesopotamia
    • early farming begins around 8000 bp
    • spring floods bring water and nutrients
    • people began to control floodwater, irrigate, and redirect rivers
    • population expands
  7. Sumerians
    • City of Uruk (Iraq)
    • earlies true city
    • 5500 bp
    • trade networks throughout the region
    • developed writing
    • eventually united under different kings
  8. Egypt
    • Neolithic farming villages exist by 6000bp
    • by 5300bp, settlements congregate together into city states
    • Old Kingdom (4500bp) ruled by a pharoh
    • probably influenced by Mesopotamian and Nubian culture
  9. Indus Valley
    • Indus River
    • Mohenjo Daro
    • Harappa
    • large trade networks to Mesopotamia
    • lasted only 700 years
  10. China
    • roots along great rivers
    • grew rice and millet
  11. Shang Dynasty
    • 3600bp
    • writing, architecture and art
    • divination
    • elaborate bronze work
    • capital cities at zhengzhou and shixinanggou
  12. Qin Dynasty
    • ended the period of warring states
    • horsemanship
    • foot soldiers
    • increased weapon production
    • population boom
  13. What do all these civilizations have in common?
    • began near large rivers on floodplains
    • began after the development of agriculture
    • associated with large population sizes
    • writing
    • social stratification