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absence or presence of disease, strive toward optimal functioning.
people viewed as phsiological systems with related functions, and health is defined by the absence of signs and symptoms of disease and injury.
understand biological systems and systems in families, communitites, and nursing health care.
Structural functional theory
Focuses on family structure and function. Addresses membership of the family and relationships among family members. Examines effects of interfamily relationships on the family system and effects on other systems.
Erickson's theory of psychosocial development
Based off of developmental tasks. There are 8 tasks that contribute to the way a person develops. Failure to complete a stage influences a person's ability to enter the next stage. EX. if someone has experienced past failures thy will think of themselves as a failure.
Conscious sense of indviduality and uniqueness that is continually evolving throughout life.
Images of physical self
Set of expectations. Acts in comparison to the behaviors expected of that role.
Nursing codes of ethics
have the purpose of informing the public about minimum professional standards; providing a sign of the profession's commitment to the public; outlining major ethical considerations of the profession; providing ethical standards for professional behavior; guiding the profession in self-regulation; and reminding nurses of the special responsibility they assume when caring for the sick.
Five American Association of Colleges of Nursing AACN essential nursing values
- Altruism- welfare/well being of others
- Autonomy- right to self determination
- Human dignity- Respect for the inherent worth and uniqueness of individuals
- Integrity- acting in accordance with an appropriate code of ethics
- Social justice- Acting in accordance with fair treatment no discrimination
Six things nurses can do to clarify the clients values
- list alternatives
- Examine possible consequences of choices
- choose freely
- clarify choice
- act with a pattern
Consequence based theories
look to the outcomes of an action in judging whether that action is right or wrong.
Principle based theories
Involve logical and formal processes and emphasize individual rights, duties and obligations.
relationshipship based theories
stress courage, generosity, commitment, and the need to nurture and maintain relationships.
Eight moral principles
enduring beliefs or attitudes about the person, object, idea or action.
A civil wrong cimmitted against a person or a person's property.
Act committed in violation of public law and punishable by a fine or imprisonment.
The clients right to make their own decision
to do no harm.
Benefit of others
fairness; when the rights of one client are being balanced against those of another client.
four concepts central to nursing; client, environment, health and nursing
Dorthea orem's theory
- self care theory based on four concepts: self care, self care agency, self care requisites and therapeutic self care demand.
- Activities an indivdual performs independently throughout life to promote and maintain personal well being.
- According to Orem, self-care requisites (needs) are measures or actions taken that provide self-care. Universal requisites are common to all people (air, water, food, solitude, etc.); developmental requisites result from maturation (body image changes, loss of spouse); and health deviation requisites result from illness, injury, or disease/treatment (seeking health assistance, performing prescribed therapies, and adjusting to effects of illness/treatment).
Betty Neuman's system model
Neuman categorizes three types of stressors: intrapersonal (e.g., an infection); interpersonal (e.g., unrealistic role expectation); and extrapersonal (e.g., financial concerns).
Parse's human becoming theory
Parse's human becoming theory features the nurse helping individuals and families choose possibilities for changing the health process. The other answers are not part of Parse's theory.
Imogene King's theory of goal attainment
King's theory of goal attainment is based on the behavioral sciences, and includes transactions, which are defined as purposeful interactions that lead to goal attainment. The other answers are based on other theorists.
Leininger's cultural care theory
Leininger's theory is based on the phenomenon that human caring is universal but varies among cultures and is culturally derived. The other answers are not part of Leininger's theory.
Jame's Watson's theory of human caring includes how many factors?
Watson believes that the "core of nursing" involves ten carative, or nursing intervention, factors.
Henderson's 14 fundamental needs
Henderson's definition of nursing conceptualized the profession as assisting healthy and ill individuals to gain independence. Henderson defined 14 fundamental needs. the needs include: breathing normally, eating and drinking adequately, eliminating body wastes, moving and maintaining a desirable position, sleeping and resting, selecting suitable clothes, maintaining body temperature, cleanliness, avoiding environmental dangers, communicating feelings, worshipping, recreation, and learning and discovery.
Evidence based practice steps
- critically analyze
- design practice change
- implement and evaluate change
- integrate and maintain change