Bio 22 Warm-Up 2
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What is a Vascular System?
Specialized strands of hollow cells that form pipeline
What does the vascular system work as?
A plumbing system
What did the first plants not have?
A vascular system
How were materials transported in the first cells and how did they affect them?
By osmosis and diffusion, limited the maximum size of the plant body
What two living plants completely lack a vascular system?
Phyla, liverworts and hornworts
Where do you find liverworts and hornworts?
Hard to find, grow in moist, shady places
What mosses have specialized conducting cells to distribute water and carbohydrates throughout the plants?
What do the mosses phylum Bryophyta have?
Specialized conducting cells to distribute water and carbohydrates throughout the plant
What make up vascular tissue?
Conducting strands composed of specialized conducting cells that distribute water and carbohydrates throughout the plant
What is vascular tissue in mosses made up of?
Conducting cells that lack thickened walls
What does the moss sporophyte consist of?
A bare stalk that supports a spore capsule (sporangium) in which haploid spores are produced by meiosis
What is a sporangium?
A spore capsule where meiosis takes place
What are the 3 features that all vascular plants are distinguished by?
- Dominant sporophyte
- Specialized conducting tissue
- Distinctive body form
What is meant by the dominant sporophyte feature?
The life cycles of vascular plants are dominated by a diploid sporophyte that is much larger than the gametophyte
What is meant by the specialized conducting tissue feature?
Two types of conducting tissue consist of strands of elongated cells that occur end to end like sectins of pipe
What are the two types of specialized conducting tissue?
Soft walled cells (phloem) and Hard walled cells (xylem)
What do soft walled cells do and why are they soft?
Move carbohydrates down from leaves and stems to the fungi and roots (phloem) ; since water is traveling downwards, swelling of cells does not affect flow and producing hard walls is a waste
What do hard walled cells do and why are they hard walled?
Transport water and dissolved minerals up (xylem); if walls were soft, swelling of water + gravity would prevent water from being pumped upwards
What is the distinctive body form of vascular plants and how is it created?
Consists of a vertical shaft from whcih specialized sructures branch ; results as plants grow and add new cells to the tips of their bodies
What are meristems?
Zones of actively dividing cells that produce plants growth
What are the two types of meristems?
Shoot meristem and the root meristem
What is sporic meiosis?
Process by whcih spores form by meiosis and gametes form by mitosis
What is alternation of generations?
Thepattern amoung ife cycles in which a haploid individual alternates with a diploid individual
Explain the cylcle of a plant's life.
The multicellular diploid sporophyte plant undergoes meiosis (reduction) and produces haploid spores. Those spores then undergo mitosis (replication) to form a multicellular haploid gametophyte plant. The gametophyte undergoes mitosis (replication) and some of its cells prouduce haploid gametes (sperm and eggs). During fertilization, egg and sperm cells fuse to create a diploid sporophyte plant.
In nonvascular plants, what generation is teh most dominant/noticeable?
In vascular plants, what generation is the most dominant/noticeable (examples)
Sporophyte (ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms)
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