Test 1 Lecture 6

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Test 1 Lecture 6
2012-04-26 00:54:23
Test Lecture

Test 1 Lecture 6
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  1. Discuss how norepinephrine evolves from monamine
    monoamine (tyrosine)--> dopa-->dopamine-->norepinephrine
  2. What organ releases norepinephrine and epinephrine?
    • Adrenal medulla
    • Epinephrine is a hormone with an extra methyl group than norepinephrine;
    • norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter
  3. What does Neostigmine do?
    It inhibits Acetylcholine-esterase
  4. What does nerve gas do?
    It is an irreversible inhibitor of Ach-esterase, causing spastic paralysis
  5. Where is acetylcholinesterase located?
    It's located on the post-synaptic membrane
  6. Norepinephrine is inactived by _____(presynaptic) or _____(postsynaptic)
    • inactived by MAO(monoamine oxidase) presynaptically,
    • COMT (catacolomethyltransferase) postsynaptically
  7. T/F: All adrenergic receptors act via G-protein
  8. Explain how norepinephrine works to open ion channels in the liver cell
    hint: G-protein
    Norepinephrine binds on the (liver cell)receptor -> Structural/Conformation changes causes dissociation of A subunit of the G-protein -> A subunit binds to adenylate cyclase -> ATP is converted to cAMP -> cAMP converts inactive protein kinase into activeprotein kinase -> opens ion channels
  9. What does glycogen phsophorylase do?
    Breaks down glycogen
  10. Adrenergic receptors:
    Alpha 1
    Alpha 2
    Beta 1
    Beta 2
    • Alpha 1: vasoconstriction
    • Alpha 2: norepi inhibition
    • Beta 1: speeds up heart
    • Beta 2: vasodilation
  11. What kind of neurotransmitters is serotonin?
    It's a MAO; derived from tryptophan, Raph nucleus
  12. T/F: Dopamine plays a role in Parkinson's disease.
    Originate where? Where does it run to?
    • True
    • Orginate from midbrain, and goes to mesolimbic system and forebrain
  13. Name 4 amino acid neurotransmitters:
    Which two are EPSP and which two are IPSP?
    • EPSP: Glu, Asp
    • glutamate, aspartate

    IPSP: Glycine (GLY) and GABA
  14. T/F: IPSP in the post-synaptic cells of GABA invoked by increased permeability of chloride ions.
  15. Where can you find glycine and GABA?
    glycine is in the spinal cord; GABA is in the Purkinje cells of the brain
  16. 1. NMDA receptors: recognize______ and _______
    2. AMPA receptors recognize________
    • 1. Glutamate and glycine
    • 2. Glutamate
  17. Why does glutamate work with AMPA and NMDA receptors specifically?
    • Glutamate binds to AMPA, stimulates the sodium channels, allows it to enter, hypopolarize,
    • Mg2+ is kicked out,
    • Glutamate then binds to NMDA receptor allowing sodium and calcium to come in
  18. T/F: Calcium aids in long and short term potentiation
    • True; calcium binds to calcium-dependent protein kinase 2,
    • phosphorylation of calmodulin, results in phsophorylation of other proteins which forms nitric oxide; stimulates release of glutamate
  19. Long/short time memory:
    Which one requires protein synthesis?
    Long term memory; short term memory only involves alternating nerve circuitry
  20. Long term memory scheme:
    stimulate synapse, higher affinity for stimulation; repeated stimulation, stimulates faster;
  21. What is this process called: Calcium binds to calcium-dependent protein kinase 2, phosphorylation of calmodulin, results in phsophorylation of other proteins which forms nitric oxide; stimulates release of glutamate
    synaptic plasticity
  22. Agonist vs. Antagonist
    • Agonist enhances a receptor
    • Antagonist can hinder a receptor
  23. What's a pneudounipolar neuron?
    Sensory neurons; cell body is above the dendritic branch; The nerve cell body has one pole coming out of it; this is used in the afferent leading to the central nervous system
  24. Bipolar
    Found in retinal cells; receives signals from a sensory receptor
  25. Multipolar neurons
    Efferent, motor neurons
  26. What are the 3 parts of the brain stem include?
    What is the function of the brain stem?
    midbrain, pons, medulla; Where the reception and integration of ALL synpatic input coming from spinal cord
  27. what part of the brain is responsible for fine motor control, muscle tone, maintainance of balance and posture, coordination and planning of voluntary muscle activity and eye movements
  28. Involved in emotional expression, learning association, sociosexual behavior patterns?
    Limbic system
  29. emotion, behavior patterns (hint: not the limbic system)
  30. What part of the brain serves to link the NS and the endocrine system?
  31. What are two hormones made in hypothalamus and passed to posterior pituitary?
    oxytocin and ADH
  32. Is there action potential in the hypothalamus, in a hypotonic environment?
  33. What is ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus do?
    Nucleus in control of feeding behavior
  34. What's the relay station called for all synaptic input?
  35. What is responsible for coordination of slow sustained movement?
    (also suppression of useless patterns of movement; inhibition of muscle tone)
    Basal nuclei; this is where dopamine becomes really important (Parkinson's disease)
  36. What is cerebral cortex do?
    THinking, memory, decision-making, voluntary controlled movements, sensory preception, thinking, personality and creativity, self-consciousness. language
  37. What are the 31 pairs of spinal cord?
    • 8 cervical
    • 12 thoracic
    • 5 lumbar
    • 5 sacral
    • 1 is vestigial
    • and the end of the spinal cord you have: cauda equina, this is where spinal tap is
  38. On the spinal cord: gray inside, white outside
    Opposite in the brain:
    Gray outside; white inside
    White is the myelination
  39. The three impotant parts of hypothalamus:
    Ventromedial nucleus
    Dorsomedial nucleus
    What do each of them do?
    • Paraventricular: creates ADH and oxytocin
    • Ventromedial: feeling of fullness
    • Dorsomedial: irritability center
  40. What are alpha motor neurons?
    Cell bodies of the somatic nervous system