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Discuss how norepinephrine evolves from monamine
monoamine (tyrosine)--> dopa-->dopamine-->norepinephrine
What organ releases norepinephrine and epinephrine?
- Adrenal medulla
- Epinephrine is a hormone with an extra methyl group than norepinephrine;
- norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter
What does Neostigmine do?
It inhibits Acetylcholine-esterase
What does nerve gas do?
It is an irreversible inhibitor of Ach-esterase, causing spastic paralysis
Where is acetylcholinesterase located?
It's located on the post-synaptic membrane
Norepinephrine is inactived by _____(presynaptic) or _____(postsynaptic)
- inactived by MAO(monoamine oxidase) presynaptically,
- COMT (catacolomethyltransferase) postsynaptically
T/F: All adrenergic receptors act via G-protein
Explain how norepinephrine works to open ion channels in the liver cell
Norepinephrine binds on the (liver cell)receptor -> Structural/Conformation changes causes dissociation of A subunit of the G-protein -> A subunit binds to adenylate cyclase -> ATP is converted to cAMP -> cAMP converts inactive protein kinase into activeprotein kinase -> opens ion channels
What does glycogen phsophorylase do?
Breaks down glycogen
- Alpha 1: vasoconstriction
- Alpha 2: norepi inhibition
- Beta 1: speeds up heart
- Beta 2: vasodilation
What kind of neurotransmitters is serotonin?
It's a MAO; derived from tryptophan, Raph nucleus
T/F: Dopamine plays a role in Parkinson's disease.
Originate where? Where does it run to?
- Orginate from midbrain, and goes to mesolimbic system and forebrain
Name 4 amino acid neurotransmitters:
Which two are EPSP and which two are IPSP?
- EPSP: Glu, Asp
- glutamate, aspartate
IPSP: Glycine (GLY) and GABA
T/F: IPSP in the post-synaptic cells of GABA invoked by increased permeability of chloride ions.
Where can you find glycine and GABA?
glycine is in the spinal cord; GABA is in the Purkinje cells of the brain
1. NMDA receptors: recognize______ and _______
2. AMPA receptors recognize________
- 1. Glutamate and glycine
- 2. Glutamate
Why does glutamate work with AMPA and NMDA receptors specifically?
- Glutamate binds to AMPA, stimulates the sodium channels, allows it to enter, hypopolarize,
- Mg2+ is kicked out,
- Glutamate then binds to NMDA receptor allowing sodium and calcium to come in
T/F: Calcium aids in long and short term potentiation
- True; calcium binds to calcium-dependent protein kinase 2,
- phosphorylation of calmodulin, results in phsophorylation of other proteins which forms nitric oxide; stimulates release of glutamate
Long/short time memory:
Which one requires protein synthesis?
Long term memory; short term memory only involves alternating nerve circuitry
Long term memory scheme:
stimulate synapse, higher affinity for stimulation; repeated stimulation, stimulates faster;
What is this process called: Calcium binds to calcium-dependent protein kinase 2, phosphorylation of calmodulin, results in phsophorylation of other proteins which forms nitric oxide; stimulates release of glutamate
Agonist vs. Antagonist
- Agonist enhances a receptor
- Antagonist can hinder a receptor
What's a pneudounipolar neuron?
Sensory neurons; cell body is above the dendritic branch; The nerve cell body has one pole coming out of it; this is used in the afferent leading to the central nervous system
Found in retinal cells; receives signals from a sensory receptor
Efferent, motor neurons
What are the 3 parts of the brain stem include?
What is the function of the brain stem?
midbrain, pons, medulla; Where the reception and integration of ALL synpatic input coming from spinal cord
what part of the brain is responsible for fine motor control, muscle tone, maintainance of balance and posture, coordination and planning of voluntary muscle activity and eye movements
Involved in emotional expression, learning association, sociosexual behavior patterns?
emotion, behavior patterns (hint: not the limbic system)
What part of the brain serves to link the NS and the endocrine system?
What are two hormones made in hypothalamus and passed to posterior pituitary?
oxytocin and ADH
Is there action potential in the hypothalamus, in a hypotonic environment?
What is ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus do?
Nucleus in control of feeding behavior
What's the relay station called for all synaptic input?
What is responsible for coordination of slow sustained movement?
(also suppression of useless patterns of movement; inhibition of muscle tone)
Basal nuclei; this is where dopamine becomes really important (Parkinson's disease)
What is cerebral cortex do?
THinking, memory, decision-making, voluntary controlled movements, sensory preception, thinking, personality and creativity, self-consciousness. language
What are the 31 pairs of spinal cord?
- 8 cervical
- 12 thoracic
- 5 lumbar
- 5 sacral
- 1 is vestigial
- and the end of the spinal cord you have: cauda equina, this is where spinal tap is
On the spinal cord: gray inside, white outside
Opposite in the brain:
Gray outside; white inside
White is the myelination
The three impotant parts of hypothalamus:
What do each of them do?
- Paraventricular: creates ADH and oxytocin
- Ventromedial: feeling of fullness
- Dorsomedial: irritability center
What are alpha motor neurons?
Cell bodies of the somatic nervous system