Intro to Sociology Final Exam

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lekaylacalmes
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150254
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Intro to Sociology Final Exam
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2012-04-28 00:54:02
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sociology
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  1. TRUE OR FALSE
    Religion is defined in the text as belief based on conviction rather than on scientific evidence.
    FALSE
  2. The motto ________ is written on US money.
    "In God We Trust"
  3. A(n) _____ is an object in the natural world collectively defined as sacred.
    totem
  4. Holy communion is the central ____ of Christianity.
    ritual
  5. If people view marriage as ______ they are less likely to divorce
    holy matrimony
  6. According to the _______ approach, we turn to religion when we are threatened or face uncertainty.
    symbolic-interaction
  7. By defining God as a ____, societies use religious ideas to promote conformity
    judge
  8. The _______ says, among other things, that "As the church is subject to Christ, so let wives be subject in everything to their husbands".
    New Testament
  9. TRUE OR FALSE
    A denomination is a church that exists independently and recognizes religious pluralism
    TRUE
  10. TRUE OR FALSE
    Liberation theology began in Roman Catholic Church, but Popes condemned it
    TRUE
  11. Spiritual beliefs in many Native American societies are _____, which explains their reverence for the natural environment
    animistic
  12. During the Industrial Revolution, people began to rely on ______ more than priests.
    doctors and scientists
  13. Which country responded with more "yes"'s to the question "do you gain comfor and strength from religion"
    Mexico
  14. A central idea of ______ is jen, placing moral principal above self-interest
    confucianism
  15. TRUE OR FALSE
    Christianity was a marked departure from the Roman Empire's traditional atheism
    FALSE
  16. Followers of ____ have a higher birth rate than followers of any other religion. May be the dominant religion in the future
    Islam
  17. Followers of Islam are called __________
    Muslims
  18. _______ is a quasi-religious loyalty linking people in a secular society.
    Civil religion
  19. In a 2006 survey _____ of Americans said they are Jewish
    1.7%
  20. Charles Darwin states that _________.
    humanity evolved from lower forms of life over a billion years
  21. More than half of US adults identify themselves as ________.
    Protestant
  22. Scholars claim that the church is the oldest and most important to the ______ community
    African American
  23. ______ of people raised Catholic have left the Catholic church about the same number of others have became catholics
    one-third
  24. Galileo's work was banned because ________.
    he siad the Earth orbited around the sun
  25. TRUE OR FALSE
    A core value of New Age seekers is transcendence, an ability to rise above the immediate physical world
    TRUE
  26. According to the _______ approach, religion contributes social cohesion to the operation of society.
    structural-functional
  27. In pratical terms, linking the church and the state means that the government amounts to _______.
    opposing the church
  28. The Reformation leader preached the doctrine of ______.
    predestination
  29. The Amish community is one example of a North American _____ that isolates itself.
    sect
  30. The conception of God as a _____ arose because many religions began among pastrol peoples.
    shepherd
  31. _________ is the most widespread of the world's religions.
    christianity
  32. The followers of _______ strive to reach a state of peace through meditation
    Buddhism
  33. A distinctive concept of Judaism is the _______
    covenant
  34. TRUE OR FALSE
    Buddhism originated about 4,500 years ago.
    FALSE
  35. In 2008, ____ of first year college students claimed no religion
    7%
  36. Researchers identify five characteristics of religious fundamentalism, including ________.
    pursuit of a personal experience of God's presence
  37. Baptists in the US tend to be in the ______.
    Southeast
  38. A _____ is a socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important
    race
  39. More than a centruy ago, scientists invented the term _____ to describe the "race" of people with yellow or brown skin and distinctive folds on the eyelids.
    Mongoloid
  40. _____ is a shared cultural heritage
    ethnicity
  41. A _____ is any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural difference that a society sets apart and subordinates
    minority
  42. Outside of northern New England, the state with the lowest percentages of minorities are _______.
    Iowa and West Virginia
  43. A simplified description applied to every person in some category is a _______.
    stereotype.
  44. In the most recent Bogardus Social Distance study, the ______________ may have reduced social acceptance of Muslims and Arabs among college students.
    terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001
  45. TRUE OR FALSE
    The United States federally mandated minimum wage, as of 2009, was $7.25 per hour.
    TRUE
  46. The social-distance scale is a method of measuring _____
    prejudice
  47. A ______ is a person or category of people, typically with little power, whom people unfairly blaime for their own troubles
    scapegoat
  48. People with authoritorian personalities view society as ______
    competitive and hierarchical
  49. _______ is the unequal treatment of various categories of people
    discrimination
  50. Prejudic and discrimination can form ______, thereby perputrating each other
    a vicious cycle
  51. TRUE OR FALSE
    Prejudice refers to behavior or actions, whereas discrimination refers to attitudes.
    FALSE
  52. The United States is ______ to the extent that all people have equal standing under the law
    pluralism
  53. Biological reproduction by partners of different racial categories is know as ______
    miscegenation
  54. ______ is a daily experience for about 20% of poor African Americans living in the United States
    Hypersegregation
  55. In the late 1800s, _______ children were taken from their families and relocated in boarding schools to be resocialized as Americans
    American Indians
  56. TRUE OR FALSE
    According to the 2008 Census Bureau data, white Anglo-Saxon Protestants are concentrated in the upper class levels in our society
    FALSE
  57. _______ was the foundation of the southern colonies plantation system in the early years of US history
    Slavery
  58. So-called Jim Crow laws were classic examples of _______.
    institutional discrimination
  59. People of ____ ancestry make up the largest category of Asian Americans in America
    Chinese
  60. During WWII, _______ were relocated to military camps until the end of WWII
    Japanese Americans
  61. The largest concentration of Hispanic Americans in the US can be found in the _____
    Southwest
  62. TRUE OR FALSE
    In greater Phoenix, almost half the people are Latino.
    FALSE
  63. Of all Hispanics, ______ are most likely to speak Spanish in their homes.
    Cubans
  64. The largest populations of Arab Americans have ancestral ties to ______
    Lebanon
  65. In the early 20th century, many white ethnics established themselves in certain business; for example, the garment industry was predominantly ______
    Jewish
  66. Today's immigrants to the United States mostly come from ______
    Latin America and Asia
  67. The term xenophobia means ________
    fear of what is strange
  68. Researchers estimate that of the 10 million Africans transported to the Americas as slaves, about _____ came to the US
    400,000
  69. ______ theory claims that some prejudice is found in everyone.
    Culture
  70. The word Arab refers to ______
    an ethnic category
  71. Theodor Adorno and his colleagues proposed the _____ theory to explain the existance of prejudice
    authoritarian personality
  72. On the social distance scale the number 7 stands for ________
    "I would bar from my country"
  73. The _____ administration devised affirmitive actions programs to provide broader opportunities to qualified minorities
    Kennedy
  74. According to Census Bureau maps, which of the following racial/ethnic groups is relatively evenly represent throughout the US
    Arab Americans
  75. TRUE OR FALSE
    Race is constructed from cultural traits, whereas ethnicity is constructed from biological traits
    FALSE
  76. TRUE OR FALSE
    White ethnics are non-WASPS by virtue of their cultural heritage being non-Anglo-Saxon and/or Protestant
    TRUE
  77. Chinese immigration to the US began in ________.
    1849 with the California glod rush
  78. Which category of Asian Americans had the highest rate of poverty in 2007?
    Chinese Americans
  79. When comparing US college students who took the social distance test in 1925 and 1977 with those who took the test in 2001; "acceptance of ______" moved from near the botton to the top
    African Americans
  80. ______ theory holds that prejudice springs from frustration among people who are themselves disadvantaged.
    Scapegoat
  81. The _____ theory proposes that prejudice is used as a tool by the powerful to oppress others
    conflict
  82. TRUE OR FALSE
    In 1917 Congress passed Jones Act to make Puerto Ricans as citizans and US territory
    TRUE
  83. As Raina Kelley wrote in Newsweek in February 2009, biracial couples can struggle with _______
    identifying the reace of their children
  84. In 1994, _____ passed a law denying health care, social services and public education to illegal immigrants later overturned
    California
  85. The ____ model of interaction among racial and ethnic categories describes the process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture
    assimilation
  86. in 1848, women were denied the right to vote in the US, reflecting _______.

    A. the biological differences between women and men
    B. the teachings of the dominant church at the time
    C. the differences in intellectual capability between women and men
    D. the cultural attitudes of the time
    D. the cultural attitudes of the time
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  87. In ____, one of the goals of the kibbutz is gender equaltiy.

    A. Egypt
    B. Israel
    C. Germany
    D . Norway
    B. Israel
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  88. Preindustrial societies usually assign the roles of hunter and child-care provider based on the ____ differences between women and men.

    A. religious
    B. physical
    C. social
    D. intellectual
    B. physica.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  89. Most girls growing up in ____ enjoy most of the rights and opportunities that are available to boys.

    A. Mozambique
    B. Norway
    C. Pakistan
    D. Chad
    B. Norway
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  90. In the past, people in the United States typically described women as ____

    A. active
    B. rational
    C. emotional
    D. competitive
    C. emotional
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  91. Boys typically favor the activity of ____

    A. games that teach communication skills
    B. team sports that have winners and losers
    C. sharing secrets with one another
    D. talking to one another
    B. team sports that have winners and losers
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  92. Historically, advertisements have shown women _____

    A. drinking beer
    B. provideing banking services
    C. using home-cleaning products
    D. competing athletically
    C. using home-cleaning products
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  93. Over the years, women competing in beauty pageants have become _____.

    A. thinner
    B. smarter
    C. taller
    D. more attractive
    A. thinner
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  94. Most women in the US work force are supervised by _____.

    A. someone who is younger in age
    B. a woman
    C. an ethnic minority
    D. a man
    D. a man
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  95. Of the 25 highest-paid executives in the US, _____ of them are male.

    A. 20
    B. half
    C. only two
    D. all
    D. all
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  96. In 2007, for every dollar earned by men women earned about ____.

    A. 37 cents
    B. 50 cents
    C. a dollar
    D. 78 cents
    D. 78 cents
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  97. Which of the following is NOT a reason for the gender disparity in US incomes?

    A. types of jobs performed
    B. family responsibility
    C. community involvement
    D. discrimination
    C. community involvement
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  98. In 1981, ____ made history as the first woman to be appointed to the US Supreme Court.

    A. Sandra Day O'Connor
    B. Sonia Sotomayor
    C. Barbara Boxer
    D. Nancy Pelosi
    A. Sandra Day O'Connor
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  99. In general in the US, the ___ states have the lowest percentage of state legislators who are women.

    A. western
    B. southern
    C. southwestern
    D. northeastern
    B. southern
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  100. sexual violence against women is fundamentally about ___

    A. race
    B. educational advantage
    C. sex
    D. power
    D. power
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  101. the practice of female genital mutilation is common across __.

    A. Africa
    B. the russian federation
    C. china
    D. south america
    A. Africa
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  102. Because pornography plays a part in gender stratification, it is considered by many to be a ____ issue.

    A. family
    B. moral
    C. personal
    D. power
    D. power
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  103. The structural-functional theorists view gender as _____.

    A. a means to disrupt society
    B. a means to integrate society
    C. a means to organize social life
    D. a matter of inequality
    C. a means to organize social life
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  104. The symbolic-interaction theory holds that women, who have less power, are expected to be _____.

    A. the modern-day hunters
    B. equal partners with their husbands at home
    C. deferential to men
    D. sexually promiscuous
    C. deferential to men
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  105. The use of contraception by marrie women of childbearing age is highest in ______.

    A. china
    B. the philippines
    C. the united states
    D. India
    A. china
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  106. The Equal Rights Amenment to the US Constitution was first proposed in Congress in 1923 and it _____.

    A. has yet to become law
    B. became law in 1925
    C. became law in 1972
    D. was never propose again
    A. has yet to beome law
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  107. Liberal feminists think that women should advance according to their own efforts, rather than working collectively for change.

    a. true
    b. false
    a. true
  108. Only ____ feminism accepts the basic order of society as it is.

    A. radical
    B. academic
    C. liberal
    D. socialist
    C. liberal
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  109. Because ____ has given us greater control over reproduction, women's lives are less constrained by unwanted pregnancies.

    A. the "rhythm method"
    B. birth control technology
    C. "just saying no"
    D. sex education classes in schools
    B. birth control technology
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  110. The nature of work outside the home has shifted to jobs that require ____, which has leveled th eplaying field for women and men.

    A. service and support
    B. subservience
    C. thought and imagination
    D. physical strength
    C. thought and imagination
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  111. ____, President Franklin Roosevelt's scretary of labor, was the first woman to be appointed to a presidential cabinet.

    A. elaine chao
    B. hattie caraway
    C. shirley chisholm
    D. frances perkins
    D. frances perkins
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  112. The occupation that has the highest percentage of women is ____.

    A. nurse
    B. hairdresser
    C. dental hygienist
    D. receptionist
    C. dental hygienist
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  113. One of the factors that have given rise to more women in the US workforce is _____.

    A. more leisure time for women
    B. a rising divorce rate
    C. day-time television talk shows targeted to women
    D. declining membership in organize religions
    B. a rising divorce rate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  114. What fact makes people hopeful that social change will continue to improve the lives of US women in the 21st century?

    A. More women are assuming positions of power in the US corporate and political worlds
    B. The average age of US citizens is continuing to rise
    C. the birth rate in the US is declining
    D. the number of people who belong to organized religion in the US remains fairly consistent
    A. More women are assuming positions of power in the US corporate and political worlds
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  115. As of 2008, _____ separated the current world marathon records for women and men.

    A. 11 minutes
    B. 1 and 1/2 hours
    C. 47 minutes
    D. 3 hours
    A. 11 minutes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  116. One of the states with the highest share of legislative seats held by women is _____.

    A. wyoming
    B. pennsylvania
    C. minnesota
    D. south carolina
    C. minnesota
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  117. According to Parsons, society prepares boys for the labor force by stressing the ____ personality qualities.

    A. instrumental
    B. expressive
    C. discriminating
    D. uncoventional
    A. instrumental
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  118. feminists propose a ____, by which all individuals can develop all human traits.

    A. merging of the sexes
    B. cohabiting coalition
    C. gender gratification
    D. reintegration of humanity
    D. reintegration of humanity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  119. The term ____ refers to comments, gestures, or physical contacts of a sexual nature that are deliberate, repeated, and unwelcome.

    A. patriarchy
    B. sexual harrasment
    C. sexism
    D. gender stratification
    B. sexual harrasment
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  120. ___ is too variable across cultures to be a simple expression of biology.

    A. athletic endurance
    B. intellectual capacity
    C. gender
    D. ethnicity
    C. gender
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  121. In the text, Sascha Radetsky tells the story about how he has been discriminated against because of his choice to become a ____.

    A. ballet dancer
    B. cheerleader
    C. preschool teacher
    D. nurse
    A. ballet dancer
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  122. In 1848, women in much of the US could not ____.

    A. own property or keep their earnings
    B. travel alone
    C. teach
    D. practice religion
    A. own property or keep their earnings
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  123. Female nurses assisting male doctors, and female secretaries working for male executives, are just two examples of ____.

    A. gender stratification
    B. sexual harassment
    C. matriarchy
    D. feminism
    A. gender stratification
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  124. In ____ societies, women have little control over pregnancy and childbirth, which limits their opportunities.

    A. industrial
    B. neoindustrial
    C. preindustrial
    D. postindustrial
    C. preindustrial
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  125. Just as oppression of racial and ethnic minorities benefits whites, the traditional ideas about gender benefit ____.

    A. men
    B. young children
    C. college students
    D. gays and lesbians
    A. men
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  126. Three studies cited in the text show that societies define ____ very differently.

    A. masculine and feminine
    B. democracies and socialist states
    C. majorities and minorities
    D. physical characteristics and athletic abilities
    A. masculine and feminine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  127. From birth until death, ____ shapes human feelings, thoughts, and actions.

    A. education
    B. political affiliation
    C. physical strength
    D. gender
    D. gender
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  128. The term ____ refers to the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between women and men.

    A. gender role
    B. patriarchy
    C. sexism
    D. gender stratification
    D. gender stratification
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  129. The social organization fo the Musuo, a small society in China's Yunnan province, is _____.

    A. utilitarianism
    B. patriarchy
    C. egalitarianism
    D. matriarchy
    D. matriarchy
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  130. The justification for patriarchy is ____.

    A. gender stratification
    B. the global economy
    C. biology
    D. sexism
    D. sexism
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  131. Richard Gelles argues that with the exception of the police and the military, the ___ is the most violent organization in the US.

    A. mafia
    B. family
    C. black disciples
    D. multinational corporation
    B. family
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  132. Historically, women in product advertisements appear ____.

    a. lying down (usually on sofas and beds)
    b. with confident facial expressions
    c. fully dressed in business attire
    d. taller than men
    a . lying down (usually on sofas and beds)
  133. Society teaches women to measure their worth in terms of _____.

    A. inner beauty
    B. physical beauty
    C. academic achievement
    D. professional success
    B. physical beauty
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  134. Society teaches women to measure their worth in terms of _____.

    A. physical beauty
    B. academic achievement
    C. inner beauty
    D. professional success
    A. physcial beauty
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  135. _____ is one of the basic organizing principles of everyday life.

    A. inner beauty
    B. wealth
    C. personal integrity
    D. gender
    D. gender
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  136. In 2007, the highest paid five percent of US families earned at least ____.

    A. $270,000
    B. $197, 000
    C. $155,000
    D. $1.8 million
    B. $197,000
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  137. The richest 20% of all Americans hold ____ of all the country's wealth.

    A. 85%
    B. 38%
    C. 25%
    D. 60%
    A. 85%
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  138. ____ are important sources of power.

    A. income and wealth
    B. religion and education
    C. talent and accomplishments
    D. ability and education
    A. income and wealth
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  139. Most of the lowest prestige jobs are performed by _____.

    A. people of color
    B. women
    C. children
    D. men
    A. people of color
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  140. ____ affects both occupation and income.

    A. religion
    B. sexual orientation
    C. prestige
    D. schooling
    D. schooling
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  141. People of ____ ancestry have always enjoyed the most wealth and the greatest power in the US society.

    A. english
    B. french
    C. german
    D. irish
    A. english
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  142. Of the following occupations, which enjoys the greatest prestige?

    A. real estate agent
    B. musical composer
    C. photographer
    D. electrician
    D. electrician
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  143. Especially toward the ___ of the class hierarchy in America, people's standing in one dimension of status may not be the same as in another dimension of status.

    A. middle
    B. bottom
    C. top
    D. upper limit
    A. middle
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  144. Karl Marx would refer to the core of the upper class as ____.

    A. proletariats
    B. czars
    C. capitalists
    D. communists
    C. capitalists
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  145. In the tradition of European aristocrats, the children of the upper-uppers tend to study _____.

    A. liberal arts
    B. vocational subjects
    C. philosophy
    D. art history
    A. liberal arts
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  146. The lower-uppers are sometimes called ______.

    a. the second-class rich
    b. social climbers
    c. wannabes
    d. the working rich
    the working rich
  147. The ____ often play an important role in local political affairs.

    A. upper-middles
    B. upper-uppers
    C. lower-uppers
    D. working class
    A. upper-middles
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  148. In Marxist terms, the ____ class forms the core of the proletariat.

    A. lower
    B. working
    C. average-middle
    D. upper-middle
    B. working
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  149. On average, ____ people live longer and receive better health care.

    A. rich
    B. inner-city
    C. poor
    D. working-class
    A. rich
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  150. Class shapes the division of family responsibilities, with most ____ couples maintaining more traditional gender roles.

    A. middle-class
    B. upper-upper class
    C. working-class
    D. upper-class
    C. working class
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  151. Between 1980 and 2007, the richest 20% of families enjoyed a 58% jump in annual income, while the 20% of families with ____ saw only a 4.6% increase.

    A. three or more children
    B. average incomes
    C. one wage-earner collecting unemploymnet benefits
    D. the lowest income
    D. the lowest income
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  152. The author of the Newsweek article reprinted in the text suggests that we may have seen the end of ____ in the United States.

    A. segregation
    B. upward mobility
    C. the creation of exclusive clubs
    D. salary increases
    B. upward mobility
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  153. Historically, who have had the greatest opportunity for upward social mobility in the US?

    A. white men
    B. white women
    C. Hispanic Americans
    D. African Americans
    A. white men
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  154. The global reorganization of work has created upward social mobility for ____.

    A. educated people
    B. working-class people
    C. poor people
    D. minorities
    A. educated people
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  155. The text examines ____ different views about the causes of poverty in America.

    A. three
    B. five
    C. two
    D. four
    C. two
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  156. Anthropologist Oscar Lewis coined the phrase ____, which is meant to describe a lower-class subculture that can destroy people's ambitions to improve their lives.

    A. culture of poverty
    B. culture of depression
    C. the "give-up" generation
    D. self-defeating cultural behaviors
    A. culture of poverty
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  157. William Julius Wilson holds that the best way to reduce poverty in America is to ensure _____.

    A. better housing and recreational activites for all
    B. more equitable pay for all
    C. safe neighborhoods for all
    D. more jobs
    D. more jobs
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  158. Poor families who turn to public assistance typically receive about ____ per month.

    A. $550
    B. $700
    C. $200
    D. $400
    D. $400
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  159. An estimated ____ are homeless in America at some time during the course of a year.

    A. 25,000
    B. 300,000
    C. 750,000
    D. 100,000
    C. 750,000
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  160. Approximately ____ of the homeless people in America are mentally ill.

    A. 1/2
    B. 3/4
    C. 2/3
    D. 1/4
    D. 1/4
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  161. A Harvard professor who conducted research in a poor area in Chicago concluded that ____ was the primary reason for the decline of the neighborhood.

    A. lack of jobs
    B. gang violence
    C. drug use
    D. alcoholism
    A. lack of jobs
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  162. In one of the text's "Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life" boxes, a Harvard professor recommends that the government pay people in inner cities to clean up the slums and put up new housing as a first step toward moving people from welfare to work. Such a plan is modeled after the ____ created during the Great Depression.

    A. medicare program
    B. works progress administration
    C. back-to-work program
    D. social security administration
    B. works progress administration
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  163. One view of the cause of poverty discussed in the book is that ____ are to blame for poverty in America.

    A. the working class
    B. the poor
    C. the middle class
    D. the rich
    B. the poor
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  164. In 2007, the richest 20% of American families received 47% of all income, and the poorest 20% earned ____.

    A. 4%
    B. 20%
    C. 10%
    D. 30%
    A. 4%
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  165. The occupations that rank highest in prestige are dominated by ____.

    A. men
    B. young people
    C. people of color
    D. women
    A. men
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  166. The term ____ refers to the trend of women making up an increasing proportion of the poor in the United States.

    A. equal-rights factor
    B. pink poverty
    C. women's liberation backlash
    D. feminization of poverty
    D. feminization of poverty
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  167. The term ____ refers to the upward or downward social mobility of children in relation to their parents.

    A. horizontal social mobility
    B. intergenerational social mobility
    C. structural social mobility
    D. intragenerational social mobility
    B. intergenerational social mobility
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  168. The author of the Newsweek article reprinted in the text proposes that ____ will be the "major dividing line" in America in the future.

    A. religion
    B. politics
    C. race
    D. class
    D. class
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  169. Average family income in the US grew rapidly ____.

    A. from the 1970 to present
    B. at the turn of the 21st century
    C. in the 1990s
    D. between 1950 and 1970
    D. between 1950 and 1970
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  170. Karl Marx divides society into ____major classes.

    A. two
    B. seven
    C. four
    D. three
    D. three
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  171. Comparing only families headed by married couples, African Americans ____ as much as non-Hispanic white families in 2007.

    A. 25%
    B. 40%
    C. 80%
    D. 57%
    C. 80%
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  172. Social mobility since the 1970s has been ____.

    A. downward
    B. upward
    C. stagnant
    D. uneven
    D. uneven
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  173. Defining classes in US society is difficult because of our relatively low ____.

    A. tolerance of labels
    B. status consistency
    C. identity consistency
    D. voter turnout
    B. status consistency
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  174. Inequality in the US is ____.

    A. not as prevalent as many people imagine
    B. problematic for only a few ethnic groups
    C. not much of a problem anymore
    D. greater than many people imagine
    D. greater than many people imagine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  175. The media income for families in the US is around ____.

    A. 150,000
    B. 20,000
    C. 60,000
    D. 100,000
    C. 60,000
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  176. Nothing affects social standing in the US more than ____.

    A. gender
    B. race
    C. the family into which you are born
    D. occupation
    C. the family into whcih you are born
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  177. The highest percentage of poor people in America today are ___.

    A. young adults
    B. children
    C. elderly
    D. middle-aged
    B. children
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  178. Women generally suffer more than men after divorce because women ____.

    A. frequently lose the family house in divorce proceedings
    B. frequently lose income and insurance coverage
    C. typically earn more than men
    D. are usually not the ones who file for divorce
    B. frequently lose income and insurance coverage
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  179. Many people think of the US as a(n) ____ society.

    A. lower-class
    B. class-less
    C. upper-class
    D. middle-class
    D. middle-class
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  180. Which of the following has usually contributed to upward social mobility?

    A. earning a college degree
    B. getting a divorce
    C. belonging to an organized religion
    D. being a member of a minority group
    A. earning a college degree
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  181. In one of the "Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life" stories, the writer noticed that as the CEOs got richer, the building of ____ returned.

    A. homeless shelters
    B. mansions
    C. civic centers
    D. churches
    B. mansions
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  182. US families in the upper class earn at least ____ a year.

    A. 1 million
    B. 150,000
    C. 197,000
    D. 500,000
    C. 197,000
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  183. The term ____ refers to the lack of resources of some people when compared to those who have more.

    A. relative poverty
    B. absolute poverty
    C. working poverty
    D. non-working poverty
    A. relative poverty
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  184. Which of the following occupations enjoy the highest prestige?

    A. aircraft mechanic
    B. TV announcer
    C. social worker
    D. real estate broker
    A. aircraft mechanic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  185. Members of the ___ class typically work at jobs like bank manager, high school teacher, government office worker, electrician, and carpenter.

    A. average-middles
    B. lower-middles
    C. upper-middles
    D. working
    A. average-middles
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  186. Which of the following is one of the four principles on which social stratification is based?

    A. social stratification is based on individual differences
    B. social stratification is abandoned and redefined by each new generation
    C. social stratification involves not just inequality but beliefs as well
    D. social stratification is universal and consistent
    C. social stratification involves not just inequality but beliefs as well
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  187. Different societies have different explanations of why people should be unequal.

    a. true
    b. false
    a. true
  188. Caste systems are ____.

    A. rare in agrarian societies
    B. less rigid than class systems or aristocracies
    C. based on birth
    D. based on acription, or individual merit
    C. based on birth
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  189. The caste system that was prevalent in ____ until the 1990s was called apartheid.

    A. south america
    B. china
    C. india
    D. south africa
    D. south africa
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  190. The law of ____ prevented aristocrats' vast landholdings from being divided by heirs when they died.

    A. social constancy
    B. meritocracy
    C. primogeniture
    D. family privilege
    C. primogeniture
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  191. Roughly 1/4 of the British people are in the middle class.

    a. true
    b. false
    a. true
  192. In aristocratic Japan, the emperor ruled by divine right

    a. true
    b. false
    a. true
  193. Today, Japanese society consists of classes that are not clear to most Japanese, and many people move between classes over time.

    a. true
    b. false
    a. true
  194. What term do sociologists use to describe a shift in the social position of large numbers of people due to changes in society itself?

    A. social order
    B. emerging social classes
    C. structural social mobility
    D. hierarchical change
    C. structural social mobility
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  195. Chinese Communist party leader Mao Zedong's declaring all types of work to be equally important had the effect of greatly reducing economic inequality.

    a. true
    b. false
    a. true
  196. Economic inequality in China has increased in recent years, so that it is now about the same as in the United States.

    a. true
    b. false
    b. false
  197. A set of cultural beliefs that justify particular social arrangements, including patterns of inequality, is known as ____.

    A. structural social mobility
    B. ideology
    C. hai gui in china
    D. the Davis-Moore thesis
    B. ideology
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  198. More than in most societies, ____ links social standing to personal abilities.

    A. india
    B. japan
    C. the united states
    D. great britain
    C. the united states
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  199. There is little disagreement that in the United States, rewards are a fair reflection of the contribution someone makes to society.

    a. true
    b. false
    a. true
  200. The Davis-Moore thesis highlights how special inequality promotes conflict and revolution.

    a. true
    b. false
    b. false
  201. Today, most large companies are owned by _____.

    A. the proletariat
    B. individual elite
    C. not-for-profit foundations
    D. millions of stockholders
    D. millions of stockholders
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  202. In 1990, when Andrew Carnegie earned about $20 million a year, the average worker earned about ______ a year.

    A. 550
    B. 10
    C. 1500
    D. 4000
    A. 550
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  203. Lower-prestige jobs that involve mostly manual labor are called ____ occupations.

    A. blue-collar
    B. agrarian
    C. service
    D. white-collar
    A. blue-collar
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  204. Ralf Dahrendorf suggested that workers today are more secure than a century ago because of government safety regulations, unemployment insurance, disability protection, and Social Security.

    a. true
    b. false
    a. true
  205. In the US 35% percent of all privately owned property is in the hands of ____ of the population.

    A. 20%
    B. 12%
    C. 2.5%
    D. 1 %
    B. 12 %
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  206. Industrialization and the development of capitalism eliminate traditional rankings based on birth, but they also create striking financial inequality.

    a. true
    b. false
    a. true
  207. Which theoretical perspective believes that stratification is a system of unequal rewards that benefits society as a whole?

    A. structural-functional approach
    B. symbolic-interaction approach
    C. class system analysis
    D. social- conflict approach
    A. structural-functional approach
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  208. ____ refers to buying and using products because of the "statement" they make about social position.

    A. financial stratification
    B. the kuznets theory
    C. conspicuous consumption
    D. economic displacement
    C. conspicuous consumption
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  209. People's social standing affects their everyday interactions; this is why a micro-level analysis of social stratification is important.

    a. true
    b. false
    a. true
  210. While agrarian advances in technology tend to decrease inequality, industrialization tends to increase it.

    a. true
    b. false
    b. false
  211. According to a 2008 World Bank publication, which of the following nations falls into the category of "severe income inequality"?

    A. india
    B. saudi arabia
    C. belarus
    D. the US
    D. the US
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  212. Income inequality is decreasing in the US as the information Revolution moves forward.

    a. true
    b. false
    b. false
  213. Hernstein and Murray's book, The Bell Curve, focuses on the theory that intelligence is primarily environmentally derived.

    a. true
    b. false
    b. false
  214. Karl Marx advocated social-conflict analysis, which holds that people should not share resources equally.

    a. true
    b. false
    b. false
  215. One argument against the Davis-Moore thesis is that we tend to underestimate the importance of work that is not oriented toward making money.

    a. true
    b. false
    a. true
  216. In terms of income inequality around the worl, the United States is in the same category as _____.

    A. canada
    B. south africa and india
    C. most countries in the European union
    D. Argentina and Venezuela
    D. argentina and venezula
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  217. According to Hernstein and Murray's book the bell curve, in today's society ____.

    A. the "cognitive elite" are dying out
    B. the "cognitive elite" are perpetuating themselves from one generation to the next
    C. intelligence is less important than the ability to get along with others
    D. programs such as Head Start and affirmative action are vitally important and effective
    B. the "cognitive elite" are perpetuating themselves from one generation to the next
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  218. Max Weber claimed that social stratification involved three distinct dimensions of inequality. The first demsension is the one that was crucial to Karl marx; weber viewed it as a continuum that ranged from high to low. this demension is ____.

    A. social prestige
    B. class position
    C. social status
    D. power
    B. class position
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  219. Max Weber thought of classes as _____.

    A. unrelated to economic status
    B. a continuum ranging from high to low
    C. an outmoded concept
    D. well-defined categories
    B. a continuum ranging from high to low
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  220. South Africa today is a country dominated by caste through enforcement of its system of apartheid, or separtation of the races.

    a. true
    b. false
    b. false
  221. A pure meritocracy _____.

    A. defines social position according to a person's virtue, or ethical merit
    B. has never existed
    C. defines merit in terms of loyalty to the system
    D. would strengthen families and other social groupings
    B. has never existed
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  222. As the Industrial Revolution expanded England's economy, there was more emphasis on all of the following EXCEPT _____.
    A. there was greater emphasis on meritocracy
    B. the distinction between the nobility and commoners was sharpened
    C. commoners living in cities lost their fortunes and returned to the countryside
    D. legal rights were abrogated in favor of religios rules
    A. there was greater emphasis on meritocracy
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  223. In medieval France, the hereditary nobility was known as the _______.

    A. second estate
    B. first estate
    C. elite caste
    D. third estate
    A. second estate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  224. In Japan today, _____.

    A. women and men are equal under the law
    B. the historic gender gap in education no longer exists
    C. nearly as many women as men hold executive business positions
    D. parents are more likely to send daughters to college than sons
    A. women and men are equal under the law
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  225. In India's caste system, farming is ______.

    A. open to everyone
    B. the occupation for couples and families that follow the system of endogamous marriage
    C. open to Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, Sudras, and untouchables, but not Brahmans
    D. the occupation reserved for jatis
    A. open to everyone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  226. Sociologists refer to ____ as a composite ranking based on various dimensions of social inequality.

    A. white-collor occupations
    B. social position
    C. class position
    D. socioeconomic status
    D. socioeconomic status
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  227. Structural social mobility is defined as a shift in the social position of large numbers of people _____.

    A. due more to individual efforts
    B. due more to changes in society itself than to individual efforts
    C. as a result of talent and motivation
    D. such that their standart of living is significantly improved
    B. due more to changes in society itself than to individual efforts
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  228. Which of the following is true with regard to social stratification?

    A. inequality is mostly determined by financial success or lack thereof
    B. horizontal social mobility is rare
    C. social stratification exists in many, but not all, societies around the world.
    D. the explanations of why people should be unequal differ from one society to another
    C. social stratification exists in many, but not all, societies around the world.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  229. The idea that social inequality plays a vital role in the smooth operation of society is consistent with the structural-functional approach.

    a. true
    b. false
    a. true
  230. In the UK today, the middle class comprises roughly half the population.

    a. true
    b. false
    b. false
  231. A(n) _____ is defined by social stratification based on both birth and individual achievement.

    A. caste system
    B. class system
    C. aristocracy
    D. meritocracy
    B. class system
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  232. A major reason that social hierarchies endure is _____, which is defined as a set of cultural beliefs that justify particular social arrangements, including patterns of inequality.

    A. prejudice
    B. ideology
    C. discrimination
    D. tradition
    B. ideology
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  233. Which statement about modern Japan is true?

    A. After japan's defeat in WWII, the nobles gained greater power over the emperor
    B. japan's society consists of four classes that are clearly defined.
    C. family background is very important in determining social standing
    D. men no longer dominate women
    C. family background is very important in determining social standing
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  234. The Kuznets curve is a useful method of predicting future trend in individual societies.

    a. true
    b. false
    b. false
  235. Criticisms of Hernstein and Murray's book The bell Curve include the argument that ______.

    A. intelligence is principally inherited, not a result of socialization
    B. "general intelligence" exists, and people with more of it are more successful in their careers
    C. intelligence tests do not measure perfeormance as much as they measure ability
    D. most researchers who study intelligence conclude that only 25 to 40 percent of it is inherited
    D. most researchers who study intelligence conclude that only 25 to 40 percent of it is inherited
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  236. In terms of levels of analysis, which theoretical perspect fair?

    A. class system theory
    B. symbolic-interaction approach
    C. social conflict approach
    D. structural-functional approach
    D. structural- functional approach
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  237. According to the ____ approach, stratification is a factor that guides people's interactions in everyday life.

    A. social-conflict
    B. ecological
    C. symbolic-interaction
    D. structural-functional
    C. symbolic-interaction
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  238. John D. Rockefeller was a proponent of ____, in that he believed that the growth of corporations and wealth of their owners was the result of "the survival of the fittest".

    A. Herbert spencer
    B. Vladimir Lenin
    C. the Davis-Moore thesis
    D. karl marx
    A. herbert spencer
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  239. The program of perestroika was _____.
    A. a Russian interpretation of the theories of Karl Marx
    B. introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev to generate economic growth in the USSR
    C. used to depose Joseph Stalin from power
    D. introduced by Vladmir Putin to reduce centralized sontrol of the USSR's economy
    B. introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev to generate economic growth in the USSR
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  240. _____ broke sumbolic "color lines" by singing in the White House in 1936 and on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial to a crowd of almost 100,000 people in 1939.

    A. Cynthia Smith
    B. Josie Anderson
    C. Gladys Black
    D. Marian Anderson
    D. Marian Anderson
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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