Athletic Training

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  1. nutrition
    the science of the substances that are found in foods essential to life
  2. Six Classes of Nutrients
    • Carbohydrates (CHO)
    • Fats
    • Proteins
    • Vitamins
    • Minerals
    • Water
  3. Major roles of nutrients
    • growth, repair, and maintenance of all tissue
    • regulation of body processes
    • production of energy
  4. Carbohydrates
    • body's most efficient source of energy
    • intake should account for 55-70% of total caloric intake
    • classified as simple sugars or complex starch and most forms of fiber
  5. monosaccharides
    simple sugars found in fruit, syrups, honey and glucose
  6. disaccharides
    milk, sugar (lactose), and table sugar
  7. starches
    • complex carbohydrates
    • rice, potatoes, breads
    • broken down by glycolysis
  8. fiber
    • Types: soluble and insoluble
    • fiber passes through intestinal tract and adds bulk
    • reduces risk of colon cancer and coronary artery disease
  9. Fats (lipids)
    • most concentrated source of energy
    • saturated- derived from animal sources
    • unsaturated- derived from plants, liquid at room temp
    • trans fat- boost levels of bad cholesterol; cookies, crackers, dairy, meats, fast foods
    • 25-30% of diet
  10. Proteins
    • make up major structural components of the body
    • needed for growth, mainenence and repair of all body tissues
    • 12-15% of total caloric intake
  11. Amino acids
    • basic units that make up protein
    • essential amino acids are obtained through food
  12. Vitamins
    • 13 vitamins have specific roles in the body
    • fat soluble: Vitamins A, D, E, K
    • water soluble: Vitamins C, B-complex
  13. Antioxidants
    • Vitamin C, Vitamin E, beta-carotene
    • may prevent premature aging, certain cancers, heart disease
  14. Minerals
    • most minerals stored in the body, especially in liver and bones
    • Include magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, calcium
  15. Water
    • most essential of all the nutrients
    • accounts for nearly 60% of body weight
  16. Why is adequate water supply necessary?
    • energy production in all cells
    • assists with digestions
    • temperature control
  17. Electrolytes
    • maintain balance of water inside and outside the cell
    • electrolyte losses can produce muscle cramping and heat intolerance
  18. Calcium Deficiency
    calcium adequate intake for young adults is 1000 mg (8 oz glass of milk contains 300 mg)
  19. Iron Deficiency
    • Anemia
    • needed to properly form hemoglobin
  20. Protein Supplementation
    athlete should consume 1-1.5 grams of extra protein per kilogram of body weight everyday
  21. Creatine Supplementation
    • naturally occurring organic compound synthesized by the kidneys, liver and pancreas
    • obtained from eating fish, meat
    • August 2000- NCAA banned distribution from schools, but did not ban use
  22. Weight Control and Body Composition
    • % of body fat- portion of total body weight composed of fat tissue
    • lean body weight- total body weight that is composed of muscles, tendons, bones, and connective tissue
    • average female= 20-25% body weight is fat
    • average male= 12-15%
    • endurance female= 10-18%
    • endurance male= 8-12%
  23. Caloric Consumption and Intake
    • CHO and Protein- 4 cal/gram
    • Fat- 9 cal/gram
    • Alcohol- 7 cal/gram
  24. Methods of weight loss
    • 35-45% of weight loss due to dieting results in loss of lean tissue
    • 80-90% loss of fat and nearly no tissue through exercise
    • Lose 1.5-2 lbs/week
  25. Methods of weight gain
    • weight gain 1-2 lbs/week
    • to gain 1 lb of muscle, excess of approximately 2500 calories needed
    • to lose 1 lb of fat, approximately 3500 calories in excess of intake must be expended in activities
    • Adding 500-1000 calories/day to usual diet will provide energy needs of gaining 1-2 lbs/week
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Athletic Training
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