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The study of carbon compounds
Is unique because they can bond to each other to form long chains and rings.
Are composed entirely of carbon and hydrogen (they are the simplest organic compounds)
- Are hydrocarbons that contain single bonds.
- Formula CnH(2n+2)
- Ends in -ane
Properties of Hydrocarbons
- Solid, liquid, or gas depending on # of carbons.
- Insoluble in water
- Burn producing a lot of heat
Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas
- Are ring compounds
- Formula: CnH(2n)
- Hydrocarbons which contain a carbon to carbon double bond.
- Formula: CnH(2n)
- Ends in -ene
- Hydrocarbons that contain a triple bond.
- Formula: CnH(2n-n)
- Ends in -yne
- When each carbon atom is bonded to the maximum number of hydrogen atoms.
- Ex: Alkanes
- When more hydrogen atoms can be added, adding a double or triple bond( addition reactions)
- Ex: Alkenes and Alkynes
When a molecule adds to the double or triple bond.
A unique organic compound that is a very stable six-sided ring.
When hydrocarbons contain a benzene ring or have properties similar o benzene.
Atoms of groups of atoms attached to hydrocarbons skeletons give the compounds characteristic chemical and physical properties.
- When H atoms of a hydrocarbon are substituted by chlorine.
- Ex: Dichloromethane and Trichloromethane
Carbon compounds with both chlorine and flourine.
Contains the hydroxl (-OH) functional group.
- -Aromatic compounds with the hydroxyl group attached
- •The presence of the aromatic ring alters the properties of the hydroxyl group.
- •do not act as alcohols but as acidsare an effective antiseptic
Ethers are compounds with two alkyl groups bonded to the same oxygen.
General formula: ROR or ROR’
Organic acids that contain the carboxyl (COOH) functional group
Similar to carboxylic acid, (RCOOR'). with an alkyl group replacing the hydrogen atom of the carboxyl group.
A hydrocarbon derived of ammonia in which one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by alkyl groups.
- Have the Nitroen bonded to a carbon.
- Has Oxygen attached to Nitrogen
- Are rings that contain atoms other than carbon as part of the ring.
- Ex: N, O, S
- Molecules with a large molecularmass formed as a chain of repeating smaller units.
- Poly- means many
- Mer- means parts
The small building blocks that make a Polymer
Process whereby monomers are joined together to form a polymer
Occurs when monomers add to one another in such a way that the resulting molecule contains all atoms that are present in monomers.
Small molecules such as water, alcohol, ammonia, or HCL, are released by byproucts
Gas to a solid
Ionic vs Covalent Bonds
- Ionic: When positive and negative bonds attrack.
- Covalent: When 2 atoms share electrons.
When 2 momomers connect
Glass Transition (Tg)
- High- above= tacky rubbery
- Low- below= glass
You want a car tire with low temp
Makes polymer more rigid/ stronger