Chem Final Exam

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Chem Final Exam
2012-04-26 12:19:19
Chem 101

Chps 9-10 (and some old info)
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  1. Organic Chemistry
    The study of carbon compounds
  2. Carbon
    Is unique because they can bond to each other to form long chains and rings.
  3. Hydrocarbons
    Are composed entirely of carbon and hydrogen (they are the simplest organic compounds)
  4. Alkanes
    • Are hydrocarbons that contain single bonds.
    • Formula CnH(2n+2)
    • Ends in -ane
  5. Properties of Hydrocarbons
    • Solid, liquid, or gas depending on # of carbons.
    • Nonpolar
    • Insoluble in water
    • Burn producing a lot of heat
  6. Isomers
    Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas
  7. Cylic Hydrocarbons
    • Are ring compounds
    • Formula: CnH(2n)
  8. Alkenes
    • Hydrocarbons which contain a carbon to carbon double bond.
    • Formula: CnH(2n)
    • Ends in -ene
  9. Alkynes
    • Hydrocarbons that contain a triple bond.
    • Formula: CnH(2n-n)
    • Ends in -yne
  10. Saturated Hydrocarbons
    • When each carbon atom is bonded to the maximum number of hydrogen atoms.
    • Ex: Alkanes
  11. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
    • When more hydrogen atoms can be added, adding a double or triple bond( addition reactions)
    • Ex: Alkenes and Alkynes
  12. Addition Reactions
    When a molecule adds to the double or triple bond.
  13. Benzene (C6H6)
    A unique organic compound that is a very stable six-sided ring.
  14. Aromatic
    When hydrocarbons contain a benzene ring or have properties similar o benzene.
  15. Functional Groups
    Atoms of groups of atoms attached to hydrocarbons skeletons give the compounds characteristic chemical and physical properties.
  16. Chlorinated Hydrocarbon
    • When H atoms of a hydrocarbon are substituted by chlorine.
    • Ex: Dichloromethane and Trichloromethane
  17. Chlorofluorocarbons
    Carbon compounds with both chlorine and flourine.
  18. Alcohol
    Contains the hydroxl (-OH) functional group.
  19. Phenols
    • -Aromatic compounds with the hydroxyl group attached
    • •The presence of the aromatic ring alters the properties of the hydroxyl group.
    • •do not act as alcohols but as acidsare an effective antiseptic
  20. Ethers
    Ethers are compounds with two alkyl groups bonded to the same oxygen.

    General formula: ROR or ROR’
  21. Carboxylic Acids
    Organic acids that contain the carboxyl (COOH) functional group
  22. Esters
    Similar to carboxylic acid, (RCOOR'). with an alkyl group replacing the hydrogen atom of the carboxyl group.
  23. Amine
    A hydrocarbon derived of ammonia in which one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by alkyl groups.
  24. Amide
    • Have the Nitroen bonded to a carbon.
    • Has Oxygen attached to Nitrogen
  25. Heterocyclic Compounds
    • Are rings that contain atoms other than carbon as part of the ring.
    • Ex: N, O, S
  26. Polymers
    • Molecules with a large molecularmass formed as a chain of repeating smaller units.
    • Poly- means many
    • Mer- means parts
  27. Monomers
    The small building blocks that make a Polymer
  28. Polymerization
    Process whereby monomers are joined together to form a polymer
  29. Addition Polymerization
    Occurs when monomers add to one another in such a way that the resulting molecule contains all atoms that are present in monomers.
  30. Condensation Polymeriation
    Small molecules such as water, alcohol, ammonia, or HCL, are released by byproucts
  31. Depisition
    Gas to a solid
  32. Ionic vs Covalent Bonds
    • Ionic: When positive and negative bonds attrack.
    • Covalent: When 2 atoms share electrons.
  33. Copolymer
    When 2 momomers connect
  34. Glass Transition (Tg)
    • High- above= tacky rubbery
    • Low- below= glass

    You want a car tire with low temp
  35. Volcanisation
    Makes polymer more rigid/ stronger