The force that moves people to behave, think, and feel the way they do.
_____________ behavior is energized, directed, and sustained.
An innate (unlearned) biological pattern of behavior that is assumed to be universal throughout a species
Study of animal behavior
Sets instinct in motion
An aroused state that occurs because of a physiological need
Deprivation that energizes the drive to eliminate or reduce the deprivation.
Psychologists think of ____ as underlying our _____
Needs / drives
Theory that a drive becomes stronger, we are motivated to reduce it
Drive Reduction theory
Goal of drive reduction is _____________, the body's tendency to maintain an equilibrium, or steady state
Theory that performance is best under moderate arousal rather than either low or high
Important factor in hunger, brain depends on it for energy
Glucose (blood sugar)
Sugar receptor in the brain does....
triggers hunger when sugar levels fall too low
Sugar receptors in the liver...
stores excess sugar and releases it into the blood when needed; signal the brain when its supply falls
The chemical substance released by fat cells, decreases food intake and increases metabolism
The ______ hypothalamus is involved in stimulating eating.
The ____________ hypothalamus is involved in reducing hunger and restricting eating
Gene influencing some individuals do inherit a tendency to be overweight
The weight maintained when the individual makes no effort to gain or lose
Fat is stored in ___________ cells
Motivation for sexual behavior is centered in the
the __________ of the neocortex (located on the sides of the brain) are important to moderate sexual arousal and direct it to an appropriate object
Sex hormones that predominates in males, produced by the testes, and by adrenal glands in both males and females
Masters and Johnson identified a human sexual response pattern consisting of four phases
excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.
phase continuation and heightening of the arousal begun in the excitement phase
phase begins the process of erotic responsiveness.
phase in which blood vessels return to their normal state.
stereotyped patterns of expectancies for how people should behave sexually
Twin studies show that ____ do play a role in sexual orientation
Some studies suggest sexual orientation heritability as high as __ percent
Physiological needs, safety, love and belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization are all part of
Humanistic theorist Maslow's hierarchy of needs
the highest and most elusive of Maslow's needs, motivation to develop one's full potential
Self-determination theory asserts that there are three basic organismic needs: competence, relatedness, and autonomy
Need met in self-determination theory, when we feel that we are able to bring about desired outcomes
________ motivation involves self-efficacy and mastery
organismic need described by self-determination theory, the need to engage in warm relations with other people
The third need proposed by self-determination theory, the sense that we are in control of our own life
Self-determination theory says that one of the most important aspects of healthy motivation is the sense that
we do the things we do because we have freely chosen to do them.
____ motivation is based on internal factors such as organismic needs
__________ motivation involves external incentives such as rewards and punishments.
Process by which an organism effortfully controls behavior in order to pursue important objectives
One of the most important underlying problems in resisting temptation
Delay of gratification
_______ is feeling, or affect, that can involve physiological arousal (such as a fast heartbeat), conscious experience (thinking about being in love with someone), and behavioral expression (a smile or grimace).
One aspect of emotional arousal is ______________ response, a rise in the skin's electrical conductivity when sweat gland activity increases.
skin conductance level (SCL)
The _________ monitors changes in the body—heart rate, breathing, and SCL—thought to be influenced by emotional states.
According to the James-Lange theory, emotion results from _____ triggered by ________ in the environment
physiological states / stimuli
According to James-Lange, you:
a. run away because you are afraid
b. you are afraid because you are running away
The proposition that emotion and physiological reactions occur simultaneously.
The _________ houses circuits that are activated when we experience negative emotions
The ________ plays a central role in fear.
The brain circuitry that involves the emotion of fear can follow two pathways a direct pathway from the thalamus to the amygdala or an indirect pathway from the thalamus through the _________ to the amygdala
The direct pathway of fear: disadvantage & advantage:
does not convey detailed information about the stimulus, but very fast
Part of the reason fears are so difficult to change is that the amygdala is well connected to the cerebral cortex, in which___ and ____ ____ primarily
occur thinking and decision making
Physiological reason fear is hard to erase and emotions are hard to control:
Amygdala sends more connections to the cerebral cortex than it gets back.
T or F: the cerebral hemispheres work differently in positive and negative emotions
Chemicals involved in positive emotions such as happiness
Endorphins & dopamine
Bodily chemical regulates arousal
norepinephrine functions in regulating arousal
In the two-factor theory of emotion developed by Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer (1962), emotion is determined by two factors:
physiological arousal and cognitive labeling.
Schachter and Singer argued that we look to the external world for an explanation of why we are aroused.
Per Schachter and Singer, we interpret __________ and label the emotion
___________________ arousal still intensifies emotional experiences
Lazarus's belief that cognitive activity to be a precondition for emotion.
Primacy of thinking
Lazarus said that we cognitively appraise ourselves and our____ _____.
Zajonc said_______ are primary, he said, and our ______ are a result of them.
emotions / thoughts
Zajonc famously argued that “preferences need no inferences,” meaning:
the way we feel about something on a “gut level” requires no thought.
Re thought and emotion, Lazarus and Zajonc are both right: Lazarus for _______ over ______, Zajonc about _________ or _____.
cluster of related events over a period of time/ described single events or simple preferences
Hypothesis that facial expressions can influence emotions as well as reflect them
Facial feedback hypothesis
Sociocultural standards that determine when, where, and how emotions should be expressed.
_____ of an emotion refers to whether it feels pleasant or unpleasant
Research has shown that emotions tend to go together based on their ___________
In valence, _____ ______ refers to emotions such as anger, guilt, and sadness.
In valence, _____ ______ refers to emotions such as joy, happiness, and interest.
Describes degree to which the emotion reflects being active, engaged, excited vs. passive, relatively disengaged, or calm
The arousal level of an emotion
Independent dimensions that together describe a vast number of emotional states
Valence and arousal level
Wheel of mood states is also called a
circumplex model of mood
Barbara Fredrickson's modelthat the function of positive emotions lies in their effects on our attention and our ability to build resources
broaden-and-build model of positive emotion
Characteristic that has been associated with the capacity to thrive during difficult times
The idea that any aspect of life that enhances our positive feelings is likely to do so for only a short period of time.