The logical, organized search for an explanation about natural phenomena.
What is the Scientific Method, list its steps in correct order, and who is given credit for the idea?
A method for solving problems made by Galileo Galilei.
State a Working Hypothesis
Best explanation for our present level of understanding supported by a large body of reproducible data
___________ is the alternative to scientific thought.
List the members of the human line (genus, species)
Scientific study of position, motion, composition, physical properties of celestrial objects, and origin and structure of the Universe.
___________ particles vibrate at 90o to the direction that the wave travels and ___________ particles vibrate parallel to the direction that the wave travels.
Name 3 ways in which the direction of a wave can be changed:
___________ is a massless, chargeless, indivisible sub-atomic particle of electromagnetic radiation.
What is meant by the dual nature of light?
When light is behaving like a wave, it has no particle-like properties, when light is behaving like a particle, it has no wave-like properties.
What does E=mc2 mean?
Matter and light are interchangeable
Name the components of the electromagnetic spectrum in correct order:
Gamma, X-Ray, Ultraviolet, Visible light, Infared, Radio Waves
Name the spectral colors in correct order:
Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet
What does a telescope do?
A device that makes objects appear closer, larger, more detailed, brighter.
Give a statement of Kepler's 1st Law of Planetary Motion:
Planets travel about the Sun in elliptic orbits.
Give a statement of Kepler's 2nd Law of Planetary Motion:
In a single planet's orbit the closer a planet is to the Sun, the faster it travels; and the farther away it is from the Sun, the slower it travels.
Give a statement of Kepler's 3rd Law of Planetary Motion:
For a system of planets the closer a planet is to the Sun the faster its average speed is.
Define a Day:
The lenght of time it takes for a planet to spin one time on its axis.
Define a Year:
The lenght of time it takes for a planet to travel one time about the Sun.
Define a Month:
Moon circles the Earth about once a month.
Define a Week:
One of four lunar phases.
What is the difference between Prograde and Retrograde Rotation?
Prograde Rotation: Spin counter-clockwise when viewed from north pole so Sun rises in East and sets in West, most planets including Earth, while Retrograde Rotation: Spin clockwise so Sun rises in West and sets in East when viewed from norht pole.
The Earth is wobbling on its rotation axis making one complete wobble every ____________ years and positions the Earth's rotational axis such that _____________, the last star in the handle of the Little Dipper, is presently the "North Star".
Why are there Seasons on Earth?
Due to the 23.5o tilt of Earth's rotation axis to the Earth's ecliptic.
What is the side of the Moon we see called and why do we see only one side?
The Near Side
Due to the Moon's synchronous rotation about the Earth.
What is the difference between a waxing and waning Moon?
Waxing: lunar disk visible and growing larger.
Waning: lunar disk visible and growing smaller.
Give a statement that explains relative motion:
All motion is relative to the observer's frame of reference.
__________ is the Earth's orbital plane.
What is the Solar System comprised of?
The Sun, the 9 planets and their moons, asteroids, and comets.
_________ an orbiting celestial body's closest approach to the Sun and __________ an orbiting celestial body's farthest approach to the Sun.
All of the planets orbit the Sun in a ____________ direction when viewed from the "north side" of the Solar System.
Name the Terrestrial Planets and list 4 general features they share in common:
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
Closest to the Sun
Small, relatively dense
No or few moons
Name the Jovian Planets and list 4 general features they share in common:
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Large, low density
All have rings
Very fast rotation
How far is the Earth from the Sun?
93,000,000 miles which is 1AU
_________ is the closest star to the Earth outside of the Solar System and it is a distance of __________ away.
4.25 light years
The accepted age of the Earth (and the Solar System) is _______________________.
How did the Moon form?
Moon formed in another region of the Solar System as a Mars-sized planetesimal which had a grazing collision with the Earth.
The Earth's crust is in motion due to ____________ in the mantle.
How is the Earth's magnetic field formed?
Independent movement of Inner Core generates an electric current in the core and, all electrical currents generate magnetic fields about their conductors (core).
The ____________ and the _____________ form when charged particles released from the Sun ionize gases in the Earth's upper atmosphere.
Aurora Borealis (Northern Lights)
Aurora Australis (Southern Lights)
What is a Solar Eclipse?
Moon passes between Earth and Sun casting a shadow on Earth's surface; therefore, the Moon eclipses the Sun.
What is a Lunar Eclipse?
Moon moves into Earth's shadow and becomes dark because cannot reflect sunlight; therefore, the Earth eclipses the Moon.
What are asteroids?
Small planetairy bodies that orbit the Sun in a belt between Mars and Juiter.
When and what caused the extinction of the dinosaur and 3/4 of all species on Earth?
65,000,000 years ago when a 10-km size asteroid hit the Earth created an explosion equal to several billion nuclear explosions a global fire and a winter that lasted several years.
____________ and _______________ are ocean planets of liquid hydrogen and liquid helium.
__________ and ___________ are icy slush planets.
______________, one of Jupiter's moons, is the only other place in the Solar System besides the Earth where active volcanoes occur; furthermore, they erupt molten sulfur lava.
Pluto is no longer considered to be a planet; Pluto and its moon Charon are now classified as a(n) ________________.
________________ icy planetesimals beyond Pluto and are concentrated in a loosely defined group called the ____________.
Comets orbiting the Sun form a _____________ and are not confined to the ecliptic.
Give 3 unique features of Mars:
Atmosphere contains oxygen
1 Martian day about 24 hours
Polar Ice Caps
Give 3 unique features of Jupiter:
Largest of all planets, 72 times the mass of all other planets combined.
Lightning observed in the atmosphere.
Great Red Spot (and other spots) -giant eddies; first observed by Galileo.
Give 3 unique features of Saturn:
Pronounced polar flattening and equatorial bulge- due to rapid rotation and fluid planet.
Density- planet with the lowest density of all planets; density less than that of water.
Best developed system of rings of all planets.
The Sun contains _______________ of the mass of the entire Solar System.
Why is the size, shape, and luminosity of the Sun constant?
The Sun remains stable because a balance exists between the outward push caused by thermal pressure and the inward pull due to gravity.
The temperature of the Sun's surface is ____________ oC and the core's temperature is ____________ oC.
What is thermo nuclear fusion?
The joining of light nuclei in to heavy nucleus.
What are the requisites of thermonuclear fusion?
Matter int he plasma state
Adequete confinement time
All Main-Sequence Stars are ______________- fusing stars where 4 ___________ nuclei are fused into 1 ___________ nucleus.
The Sun is _______________ years old and has enough fuel to continue for another _____________ years.
The _____________ is the site of thermonuclear fusion in a star like our Sun.
________________ a unit of length roughly equal to 6 trillion miles.
90% of the observable stars are ______________.
Main- Sequence Stars
All of a star's intrinsic properties can be related to its _______________.
What is the chemical composition of the Sun (with relative abundance)?
0.2% all other naturally ocurring elements
Define Brown Dwarfs
< 0.07 Solar Masses, failed stars
Define Red Dwarfs
0.07 - 0.4 Mo, Spectral class M, P+ - P+ chain reaction