Card Set Information
psy101 development child baby
Childhood human development
Process by which the developing brain weeds out unnecessary neural connections
Refers to the pattern of continuity and change in human capabilities that occurs throughout the course of life
In our effort to experience our lives in optimal ways, we develop _________ that involve activities, social relationships, and life goals
A __________ is any agent that causes a birth defect.
The preferential looking technique involves giving an infant a choice of
what object to look at.
Refers to decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations
As early as______, infants are already engaged in organized perception of faces and are able to put together sights and sounds.
7 days old
During the first ____ of life, the dendrites of the neurons branch out, and the neurons become far more interconnected
The process of encasing axons with fat cells begins prenatally and continues after birth.
During childhood, synaptic connections
From 3 to 6 years of age, the most rapid growth takes place in the________, which are involved in planning and organizing new actions and in maintaining attention to tasks
frontal lobe areas
Not only nature, but ____________ also promote brain development
New experiences in the world
Piaget believed that children _______ their cognitive world as they go through a series of stages
When individuals incorporate new information into existing knowledge
When individuals adjust their schemas to new information
People accommodate their _____ to the ____________
schemas to the environment
The first time a child realizes that she might suck her thumb, she is assimilating the category ____ into the schema of________.
“thumb” / sucking
Piaget's first stage, the _______________stage, lasts from birth to about 2 years of age.
Piaget's term for understanding that objects and events continue to exist even when they cannot directly be seen, heard, or touched
Piaget's second stage of cognitive development, lasts from approximately 2 to 7 years of age
the preoperational stage
Preschoolers cannot perform what Piaget called______, by which he meant mental representations that are “reversible.”
Belief in the permanence of certain attributes of objects despite superficial changes
Piaget's _____ stage (7 to 11 years of age) involves using operations and replacing intuitive reasoning with logical reasoning in concrete situations
concrete operational stage
Individuals enter the ____________ stage of cognitive development at 11 to 15 years of age.
Formal operational thought is more abstract and logical than
concrete operational thought
Renee Baillargeon documented that infants as young as 3 months of age know that
objects continue to exist even when hidden
Vygotsky thought of children as __________ who develop as they interact in dialogue with more knowledgeable others
An individual's behavioral style and characteristic way of responding
The close emotional bond between an infant and its caregiver.
Ainsworth describes this as how infants use the caregiver, usually the mother, as a secure base from which to explore the environment
a way to study differences in children's attachment
strange situation test
Another critique of attachment theory is that it may not account for
temperamental differences among infants
Development theory of the influential psychologist Erik Erikson
The life-span development theory
Lifespan mos 0-18: built when a baby's basic needs—such as comfort, food, and warmth—are met.
Trust versus mistrust
Lifespan 1.5-3: Children can develop either a positive sense of independence and autonomy or negative feelings of ___ / this is called
shame and doubt. Autonomy vs shame & doubt.
Lifespan 3 – 5: Social worlds widen; assume more self-responsibility, or show less, or feel anxious
Initiative vs guilt
Lifespan 6 – puberty: Chance to master knowledge and intellectual skills
Industry versus inferiority
Some reject Erikson because he:
mainly practiced case study, and tries to capture each stage with a single concept
Restrictive, punitive style of parenting
Parenting that encourages the child to be independent but still places limits and controls on behavior
Parenting showing lack of parental involvement in the child's life
Parenting with few limits on the child's behavior
Kohlberg's theory, based on punishments (stage 1) and rewards (stage 2)
Kohlberg's theory, individual abides by standards such as those learned from parents (stage 3) or society's laws (stage 4)
Kohlberg's theory, when the individual recognizes alternative moral courses, explores the options, and then develops a personal moral code.
Kohlberg's theory is called a____ perspective because it focuses on the rights of the individual
Gilligan's (1982) approach to moral development, views people in terms of their connectedness with others
__________ can influence whether a person approaches a moral dilemma from the perspective of justice or care
Behavior that is intended to benefit other people
Age when children begin to show signs of early conscience development
Engaging in a conversation with someone and making a negative event that the person is going through seem even worse
A person's ability to recover from or adapt to difficult times