Nervous system

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Nervous system
2012-04-26 18:26:42
RMA exam

nervous system
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  1. Dendrite
    a nerve cell process that conducts impulses to the cell body.
  2. Axon
    a nerve cell process that conducts impulses away from the cell body.
  3. Sensory neuron
    a neuron that carries impulses form the spinal cord and the brain. it is also known as an afferent neuron.
  4. Motor Neuron
    a neuron that carries impulses from the central nervous system out to muscles and glands.

    It stimulates a muscle to contract or a gland to secrete.

    It is also known as an efferent neuron.
  5. Myelin
    a white fatty substance, largely composed of phospholipids and protein, that sourrounds many nerve fibers.
  6. Synapse
    the junction between two neurons.
  7. Ependymal cell
    a columnar cell located in the brain that produces cerebrospinal fluid.
  8. Oligodendrocyte
    a type of neuroglial cell that produces myelin, the white matter of the nervous system.
  9. Nerve impulse
    the electrochemical process involved in neural transmission.
  10. Action potential
    the sudden electrical charge transmitted across the cell membrane of a nerve fiber.
  11. Neurotransmitter
    a chemical substance that is released from synaptic knobs into synapic clefts. Neurotransmitters include acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin, histamine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid GABA
  12. Central Nervous system
    Consists of the brain and the spinal cord.
  13. the brain is composed of
    Four parts the cerebrum, cerebellum, the diencephalon, and the brainstem.
  14. The Cerebrum is
    • the largest part of the brain. It is divided into two hemispheres, right and left.
    • and five lobes frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, and insular (central).
  15. Right hemisphere is the
    portion of the brain responsible for controlling the left side of the body. It also controls hearing and tactile and spatial perception.
  16. Left hemisphere.
    the portion of the brain responsible for controlling the right side of the body. it is also responsible for verbal, analytical, and computational skills.
  17. Frontal lobe
    is responsible for complex concentration, planning, and problem solving. It also contains the olfactory cortex, which interprets smells.
  18. Parietal lobe
    is responsible for interpretation of sensory input other than sight, sound, and smell. It contains the gustatory area responsible for taste.
  19. Occipital lobe
    is responsible for visual recognition.
  20. Temporal lobe
    responsible for the interpretation of sensory experiences such as hearing, and smell. It is also said to be the center for emotion, memory, and personality.
  21. Isular lobe, central lobe
    is responsible for visceral or primitive emotions, drives, and reactions.
  22. Broca's area
    the part of the brain responsible for motor speech and for controlling the muscular actions of the mouth, tongue, and larynx (located in the left frontal lobe).
  23. Wernicke's area
    the part of the brain responsible for language comprehension (located in the right frontal lobe).
  24. Corpus callosum
    a large and transverse band of myelinated nerve fibers that connect the cerebral hemispheres. It is the largest commissure of the brain.
  25. Diencephalon
    contain the thalamus and hypothalamus.
  26. Thalamus
    sorts sensory impulses and directs them to the appropriate areas in the brain. it is basically a relay station for sensory impulses.
  27. Hypothalamus
    assists in controlling body temperature, water balance, sleep, appetite, emotions of fear and pleasure, and involuntary functions.
  28. Midbrain is a section of the brainstem
    that controls visual and auditory reflexes, such as turning to listen to a loud noise.
  29. Pons a section of the brainstem that
    relays sensory impulses and regulates the rate and depth of breathing in coordination with the medulla oblongate.
  30. Mudulla oblongata a section of the brainstem that
    contains the cardiac center which controls heart rate vasomotor center which controls blood pressure, and respiratory center which controls the rate, rhythm, and depth of breating.
  31. Cerebellum
    • coordinates skeletal muscle activity. or balance
    • Damage to this area could result in tremors, loss of muscle tone, and loss of equilibrium.
  32. Ventricle
    one of four small interconnected cavities within the brian filled with cerebrospinal fluid.
  33. Spinal cord
    a part of the central nervous system that conducts sensory and motor impulses, through nerves to the trunk and limbs, and serves as a center for reflex activities. It extends from the foramen magnum at the base of the skull to the lumbar region.
  34. Somatic nervous system
    • part of the Peripheral nervous system consiting of the cranial and spinal nerves that connect the central nervous system with the skin and skeletal muscles.
    • The somatic nervous system is responsible for conscious activities.
  35. Cranial nerves
    There are 12 pairs that emerge from the brainstem. Three pairs have only sensory fibers.
  36. Spinal nerves
    31 pairs of spinal nerves that emerge form the spinal cord. They provide two way communication between the spinal cord and the body's extremities, neck, and trunk.