Chapter 16 Test Prep
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Air enters the nasal cavity of the respiratory system through the __.
The nasal cavity is divided by the midkline __.
The nasal cavity mucosa has several functions. Its major functions are to __, __, and __ the incoming air. Mucous membrane-lined cavities called __ are found in several bones surrounding the nasal cavities. They make the skull less heavy and probably act as resonance chambers for __.
- paranasal sinuses
The passageway common to the digestive and respiratory systems, the __, is often referred to as the throat. It connects the nasal cavity with the __ below.
Reinforcement of the trachea with __ rings prevents its collapse during __ changes that occur during breathing. The fat that the rings are incomplete posteriorly allows a food bolus to bulge __ during its transport to the stomach.
Within the larynx are the __, which vibrate with exhaled air and allow an individual to __.
What changes happen in the thorax when the diaphragm contracts (moves downward)?
- increases volume
- decreases pressure
- increases size of lungs
- air into kungs
WHat happens when the diaphragm relaxes?
- the internal volume decreases
- pressure is increased
- the lung size decreases
- air flows out of lungs
period of breathing when air enters the lungs
exchange of gases between the systemic capillary blood and body cells
alternate flushing of air into and out of the lugns
exchange of gases between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood
period of breathing when air exits the lungs
sudden inspiration, resulting from spasms of the diaphragm
a deep breath is taken, the glottis is closed, and air is forced out of the lungs agains the glottis; clears the lower respiratory passageways
a deep breath is taken, the glottis is closed, and air is forced out of the klungs against the glottis; clears the upper resp. passageways
increases ventilation of the lungs; may be initiated by a need to increase oygen levels in the blood
All gas exchanges are made by __.
When substances pass in this manner, they move from areas of __ to areas of their __.
- higher concentration
- lower concentration
Thus, oxygen continually passes from the __ and tehn from the __.
- air of alveoli to capillary blood
- capillary blood to tissue cells
Conversely, carbon dioxide moves from the __ and then to the __.
- tissue cells to capillary blood
- capillarly blood to alveolar air
From there it passes out of the body during expiration. As a result of such echanges, arterial blood tends to be __ and venous blood is__.
- carbon dioxide poor and oxygen rich
- oxygen poor and carbon dioxide rich
Most oxygen is transported bound to __ inside the red blood cells. Conversely, most carbon dioxide is carried in the form of __ in the __. Carbon monoxide poisoning ins lethal because carbon monoxide competes with __ for binding sites.
- bicarbonate ions
The infant's condition with surfactant is referred to as __.
respiratory distress syndrome
__ is the entire process of gas exchange between the atmosphere nad body cells.
the __ tract organs are located outside of the thorax and consist of the nose, nasal cavity, and pharyn.
The __ tract organs are located within the thorax and consist of the larynx, trachea, bronchial tree, nad lungs.
The __ is a tube-like structure that extends from the nasal cavity to the esophagus and is the pathway for air and food.
eThe trachea sits __ to the esophagus.
The lower end of the trachea divides into __ which subdivides into __.
- two primary bronchi
- secondary bronchi
The __ lung ha three lobes and is therefore larger.
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