Chapter 16 Test Prep

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Chapter 16 Test Prep
2012-04-26 20:02:44
Anatomy Physiology

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  1. Air enters the nasal cavity of the respiratory system through the __.
  2. The nasal cavity is divided by the midkline __.
    nasal septum
  3. The nasal cavity mucosa has several functions. Its major functions are to __, __, and __ the incoming air. Mucous membrane-lined cavities called __ are found in several bones surrounding the nasal cavities. They make the skull less heavy and probably act as resonance chambers for __.
    • cleanse
    • warm
    • moisten
    • paranasal sinuses
    • speech
  4. The passageway common to the digestive and respiratory systems, the __, is often referred to as the throat. It connects the nasal cavity with the __ below.
    • pharynx
    • larynx
  5. Reinforcement of the trachea with __ rings prevents its collapse during __ changes that occur during breathing. The fat that the rings are incomplete posteriorly allows a food bolus to bulge __ during its transport to the stomach.
    • cartilage
    • pressure
    • anteriorly
  6. Within the larynx are the __, which vibrate with exhaled air and allow an individual to __.
    • vocal cords
    • speak
  7. What changes happen in the thorax when the diaphragm contracts (moves downward)?
    • increases volume
    • decreases pressure
    • increases size of lungs
    • air into kungs
  8. WHat happens when the diaphragm relaxes?
    • the internal volume decreases
    • pressure is increased
    • the lung size decreases
    • air flows out of lungs
  9. period of breathing when air enters the lungs
  10. exchange of gases between the systemic capillary blood and body cells
    internal respiration
  11. alternate flushing of air into and out of the lugns
  12. exchange of gases between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood
    external respiration
  13. period of breathing when air exits the lungs
  14. sudden inspiration, resulting from spasms of the diaphragm
  15. a deep breath is taken, the glottis is closed, and air is forced out of the lungs agains the glottis; clears the lower respiratory passageways
  16. a deep breath is taken, the glottis is closed, and air is forced out of the klungs against the glottis; clears the upper resp. passageways
  17. increases ventilation of the lungs; may be initiated by a need to increase oygen levels in the blood
  18. All gas exchanges are made by __.
  19. When substances pass in this manner, they move from areas of __ to areas of their __.
    • higher concentration
    • lower concentration
  20. Thus, oxygen continually passes from the __ and tehn from the __.
    • air of alveoli to capillary blood
    • capillary blood to tissue cells
  21. Conversely, carbon dioxide moves from the __ and then to the __.
    • tissue cells to capillary blood
    • capillarly blood to alveolar air
  22. From there it passes out of the body during expiration. As a result of such echanges, arterial blood tends to be __ and venous blood is__.
    • carbon dioxide poor and oxygen rich
    • oxygen poor and carbon dioxide rich
  23. Most oxygen is transported bound to __ inside the red blood cells. Conversely, most carbon dioxide is carried in the form of __ in the __. Carbon monoxide poisoning ins lethal because carbon monoxide competes with __ for binding sites.
    • hemoglobin
    • bicarbonate ions
    • plasma
    • oxygen
  24. The infant's condition with surfactant is referred to as __.
    respiratory distress syndrome
  25. __ is the entire process of gas exchange between the atmosphere nad body cells.
  26. the __ tract organs are located outside of the thorax and consist of the nose, nasal cavity, and pharyn.
    upper resp
  27. The __ tract organs are located within the thorax and consist of the larynx, trachea, bronchial tree, nad lungs.
    loewr resp
  28. The __ is a tube-like structure that extends from the nasal cavity to the esophagus and is the pathway for air and food.
  29. eThe trachea sits __ to the esophagus.
  30. The lower end of the trachea divides into __ which subdivides into __.
    • two primary bronchi
    • secondary bronchi
  31. The __ lung ha three lobes and is therefore larger.