Pathology - compend/final

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Pathology - compend/final
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2012-04-27 13:42:37
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pathology - compend/final
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  1. study of changes of structure and function of tissues of body as result of disease
    pathology
  2. branch of pathology dealing with body as a whole, without regard to any particular organ or system
    general pathology
  3. division of pathology that deals with individual body organs or systems
    special pathology
  4. branch of pathology dealing with various laboratory tests on body fluids and tissues that are used in making diagnosis
    clinical pathology
  5. division of pathology that deals with tissues that have been removed from patient during surgery
    surgical pathology
  6. expulsion of blood of gastric origin from the mouth
    hematemesis
  7. conditions that make body more susceptible to disease without actually causing it
    predisposing conditions
  8. coal dust deposited in the lungs of miners would be an example of a(n)___disease
    occupational
  9. formation of pus is process called
    suppuration
  10. pathological term for boil
    furuncle
  11. term represents a common complication of healing
    adhesions (adherence or knitting together of two surfaces)
  12. replacement of destroyed tissues with exact same kind of tissue
    regeneration
  13. controlled enlarement of body organ or part due to an increase in the number of its component cells
    hyperplasia
  14. acute diffuse inflammation of subcutaneous connective tissue
    phlegmon
  15. escape of blood from the vascular system
    hemorrhage
  16. more than the normal total volume of blood in the body
    plethora
  17. blood clot that has formed within the heart or a blood vessel during life
    thrombus
  18. decreased blood flow to body part
    ischemia
  19. embolus may consist of
    • fragments of thrombi
    • bacteria
    • tumor cells

    all of these
  20. general term used to designate the state of collapse that follows severe tissue injury
    circulatory shock
  21. area of necrotic tissue that results from a faulty blood supply to the area
    infarct
  22. melanin bears a relationship to..
    endogenous pigmentation

    (endogenous- originating within the organism)
  23. exciting cause of disease
    is an actual cause
  24. may be considered a predisposing factor of disease
    race
  25. shrinkage of muscle following paralysis

    (paralysis- loss or impairment of voluntary movement in body part, caused by injury or disease of nerves, brain, or spinal cord)
    pathological atrophy
  26. shrinkage of the uterus after menopause
    physiological atrophy
  27. enlargement of heart to offset a valvular defect
    pathological hypertrophy
  28. enlargement of the breasts during lactation
    physiological hypertrophy
  29. action of gastro-intestinal secretions upon blood in the digestive tract causes the formation of very dark, tarry feces or vomitus known as..
    melena
  30. pathological condition that has a protective function
    inflammation
  31. abnormal channel connecting two surfaces
    fistula

    (abnormal or surgically made passage between hollow or tubular organ and the body surface, or between two hollow or tubular organs)
  32. an area of necrosis in which dead cells are sloughed from free surface
    ulcer
  33. generalized edema of subcutaneous tissue
    anasarca
  34. accumulation of blood in a part due to venous obstruction
    passive hyperemia
  35. increased arterial circulation leading to congestion of blood
    active hyperemia
  36. arterial thrombosis may cause..

    (thrombosis- local coagulation or clotting of blood in a part of circulatory system)
    ischemia
  37. venous thrombosis may cause
    gangrene
  38. predisposes to thrombosis
    • disease of the blood vessels
    • sluggish circulation
    • increased viscosity of the blood

    all of these
  39. formation of a blood clot attached to the wall of the heart or blood vessels
    thrombosis
  40. foreign particle that becomes lodged in blood vessel
    embolus
  41. condition that may result from embolism

    (embolism- obstruction of artery, typically by blood clot or an air bubble)
    gangrene
  42. mass of necrotic tissue that results from circulatory obstruction

    (necrotic- dead tissue/cells)
    infarct
  43. blood discoloration of the tissues as in a bruise
    ecchymosis
  44. branch of pathology concerned with accidents and homicides
    medico-legal pathology
  45. identification of a disease
    diagnosis
  46. prediction of the probable outcome of a disease
    prognosis
  47. disease having a slow onset and long duration
    chronic
  48. disease having a sudden onset and short duration
    acute
  49. localized collection of pus in any body part, resulting from an invasion of pus-forming bacteria
    abscess
  50. blister-like structure that contains a serous fluid
    vesicle
  51. free-flowing particle in the blood
    embolus
  52. blood in the sputum

    (sputum- mixture of saliva and mucus coughed up from respiratory tract)
    hemoptysis
  53. technical term for "nose bleed"
    epistaxis
  54. increase in size of cells of an organ
    hypertrophy
  55. reaction of tissue to an irritant
    inflammation
  56. deficiency of blood in a part of the body
    ischemia
  57. any structural change that occurs in a disease
    lesion
  58. body organ mainly involved in pneumoconiosis
    lung

    (pneumoconiosis- disease of lungs due to inhalation of dust, characterized by inflammation, coughing, and fibrosis)
  59. death of a localized area of tissue is condition known as..
    necrosis
  60. replacement of dead tissue cells with connective tissue cells is process called
    repair
  61. blockage of blood vessel by some foreign object floating to the site in the blood stream
    embolism
  62. thrombi would likely be found in the..
    heart

    (thrombi- blood clot formed in situ within vascular system of body and impeding blood flow)
  63. pathological condition that is most closely associated with infarction

    (infaction- obstruction of blood supply to organ or region of tissue, typically by thrombus or embolus causing local death of tissue)
    ischemia
  64. termination of an inflammatory reaction with return to normal of the body part
    resolution
  65. circumscribed collection of pus surrounded by wall of inflammatory tissue designates
    abscess
  66. replacement of destroyed tissue with connective tissue
    repair
  67. the union of two or more adjacent boils results in an inflammatory lesion called..
    carbuncle
  68. thick liquid that collects around an infection site
    exudate
  69. antibodies are to be found in the..
    blood
  70. gumma is a lesion of..
    syphilis
  71. neoplasm most likely to cause death

    (neoplasm- new or abnormal growth of tissue in some part of body; characteristic of cancer)
    melanoma
  72. disorder that does not primarily involve the blood
    hypertrophy
  73. marked increase in the number of red blood cells is condition referred to as..
    erythrocytosis
  74. malignant tumor of epithelial tissue
    epithelioma
  75. myocardial infarction is likely after-effect of..
    coronary thrombosis
  76. benign tumor of muscle tissue
    myoma
  77. it is characteristic of leukemia to be accompanied by massive proliferation of..
    leukocytes
  78. nevus
    commonly referred to as a mole
  79. the form of anemia that develops as a complication of another disease such as hemorrhage
    secondary

    (hemorrhage- escape of blood from ruptured vessel)
  80. disorder believed to develop as an after effect of a severe streptococcal infection
    rheumatic heart disease
  81. neoplasm that is benign and composed of a mass of minute blood vessels or lymph vessels
    angioma
  82. valvular insufficiency is a commonly found disorder affecting
    heart
  83. occlusion of an artery is a condition likely to lead to
    infarction
  84. neoplasm that is malignant and composed of blood vessels
    hemangiosarcoma
  85. marked decrease in the number of leukocytes in the blood
    leukopenia
  86. disorder with the highest incidence of fatality
    leukemia
  87. myocarditis is disease that primarily involves the..
    heart
  88. neoplasm that is malignant and pigmented
    melanoma
  89. arteriosclerosis is a disease primarily involving..
    circulatory system
  90. aneurysms are disorders primarily invilving
    arteries
  91. tumor that is a cancer
    fibrosarcoma
  92. pathological condition primarily associated with arteries
    infarction
  93. benign tumor commonly found on mucous membranes
    polyp
  94. body fluid bearing the closest relationship to hempophilia
    blood
  95. endocarditis is inflammation of..
    inner tunic of the heart
  96. fibrosarcoma
    malignant tumor of fibrous connective tissue
  97. condition that is a common heart disorder
    hypertrophy
  98. inflammation of a vein
    phlebitis
  99. neoplasm that is a malignancy composed of the epithelial tissue of a gland
    adenocarcinoma
  100. condition that is a hematopoietic disorder

    (hematopoietic- pertaining to formation of blood or blood cells)
    leukemia
  101. neuroma
    benign tumor of nervous tissue
  102. deficiency of red blood cells or a deficiency of hemoglobin
    anemia
  103. body organ frequently affected by valvular stenosis
    heart
  104. neoplasm that is a malignant tumor composed of a mass of minute lymph vessels
    lymphangiosarcoma
  105. leukocytosis
    may be physiological or pathological
  106. pancarditis is a disease primarily involving..
    heart
  107. arteriosclerosis involving the cerebral arteries may be expected to lead to..
    cerebral hemorrhage- escape of blood from ruptured vessel in the cerebrum of the brain
  108. neoplasm that is benign
    osteoma
  109. circulatory disorder that is often found to occur as an after-effect of a diseased heart valve
    embolism
  110. malignant neoplasm of bone tissue
    osteosarcoma
  111. body fluid most closely associated with thrombopenia
    blood
  112. malignant neoplasm composed of fatty connective tissue
    liposarcoma
  113. hemorrhoids is a condition primarily involving..
    veins
  114. disease sometimes referred to as "cancer of the blood"
    leukemia
  115. blockage of a coronary artery is likely to lead to..
    myocardial infarction
  116. thickening of the tunica intima of the arteries due to deposits of a fatty substance in them suggests a disease called..
    atherosclerosis
  117. would be classified as potentially harmful occupational environments, which might predispose the worker to certain respiratory illnesses
    • coal mining and sandblasting
    • asbestos removal and auto body repair
    • cement manufacturing and raw cotton processing

    (1,2, and 4)
  118. the form of anemia that is due to malfunctions of the hematopoietic tissue is identified by the term..

    (hematopoietic- formation of blood or blood cells)
    primary
  119. inflammation of the stomach
    gastritis
  120. narrowing of the esophagus
    stenosis
  121. inflammation of the liver
    hepatitis
  122. complete urinary suppression
    anuria
  123. collection of urine in the kidney pelvis
    hydronephrosis
  124. inflammation of the structure that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder
    ureteritis
  125. chronic condition of the lungs caused by the inhalation of dust particles
    pneumoconiosis
  126. granulomatous lesion of tuberculosis is the..
    tubercle
  127. inflammation of the nasal mucosa
    rhinitis
  128. condition involving sugar in the urine
    glycosuria
  129. calculi that form within the kidney
    renal calculi
  130. inflammation of the pancreas
    pancreatitis
  131. pus in the pleural cavity

    (pleural cavity- walls of thorax/chest; lining around lungs)
    empyema
  132. inflammation of the lining of the abdomen
    peritonitis
  133. torn wound
    laceration
  134. inflammation of nerve
    neuritis
  135. accumulation of fluid in the cranial cavity
    hydrocephalus
  136. inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain
    meningitis
  137. malignant tumors
    • liposarcoma and hymphoma
    • melanoma and glioma

    (2 and 3)
  138. inflammation of the mouth
    stomatitis
  139. inflammation of the tongue
    glossitis
  140. inflammation of the rectum
    proctitis
  141. inflammation of the gums
    gingivitis
  142. varicosity of the veins around the rectum
    hemorrhoids
  143. inflammation of the small intestine
    enteritis
  144. inflammation of the large intestine
    colitis
  145. might be a postmortem condition of cirrhosis

    (cirrhosis- chronic disease of liver)
    • jaundice
    • ascites
    • edema

    all of these
  146. might be a post mortem condition of pneumonia
    • rapid coagulation of blood
    • cyanosis
    • dehydration

    all of these
  147. inflammation of the gall bladder
    cholecystitis
  148. the postmortem condition that might be associated with tuberculosis
    • dehydration
    • emaciation
    • cold abscess

    all of these
  149. presence of serum protein in the urine
    albuminuria
  150. condition characterized by periodic disturbances of consciousness
    epilepsy
  151. disease that would be associated with the pancreas
    diabetes mellitus
  152. disease commonly referred to as the mumps
    epidemic parotitis
  153. tuberculosis is caused by the organism
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  154. condition of the lungs involving distended or ruptured alveoli

    (alveoli- tiny air sacs in lungs where exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide)
    emphysema
  155. disease characterized by a collapsed or airless condition of the lungs
    atelectasis
  156. disease would be characterized by glycosuria

    (glycosuria- condition characterized by excess of sugar in urine)
    diabetes mellitus
  157. twisting of a segment of intestine
    volvulus
  158. presence of materials in the blood that are normally found in urine
    uremia
  159. disease that may be attributed to nervous tension
    colitis
  160. rhinitis is a disease associated with the..
    nose
  161. condition characterized by a bluish discoloration due to lack of oxygen in the blood
    cyanosis
  162. grand mal is a term associated with..
    epilepsy
  163. lifestyle choices which can lead to cardiovascular disease
    • tobacco use and fatty foods
    • little exercise and high stress
    • excessive alcohol use

    (1,2 and 3)
  164. Treponema pallidum is an organism which will cause..
    syphilis
  165. formation of calculi in the gall bladder
    cholelithiasis
  166. formation of a cavity
    cavitation
  167. form of neurosyphilis characterized by degeneration of the posterior columns of the spinal cord
    tabes dorsalis
  168. Poliomyelitis is caused by
    virus
  169. inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord
    poliomyelitis
  170. chronic disorder of the nervous system characterized by attacks causing loss of consciousness and convulsions
    epilepsy
  171. hemorrhage during which the blood escapes to the inside of the dura mater
    subdural
  172. result of a cerebral hemorrhage could be..
    • cerebral vascular accident
    • apoplexy
    • stoke

    all of these
  173. general paresis is caused by syphilis in the..

    (paresis- condition of muscular weakness caused by nerve damage or disease; partial paralysis)
    tertiary stage
  174. inflammation of the brain
    encephalitis
  175. inflammation of the uterus
    • uteritis
    • metritis

    both A and C
  176. inflammation of the mucous membrane of the lining of the cervix of the uterus
    endocervicitis
  177. pregnancy in which the fertilized egg attempts to develop outside the uterus
    ectopic
  178. inflammation of the fallopian tubes
    salpingitis
  179. vaginitis is inflammation of the..
    vagina
  180. hypertrophy of the prostate indicates that the gland is..
    enlarged

    (hypertrophy- enlargement of organ or tissue from increase in size of cells; excessive growth)
  181. dilation of the spermatic vein
    varicocele
  182. inflammation of a testis
    orchitis
  183. the subjective disturbances caused by disease that are felt or experienced by a patient but not directly measurable
    symptoms
  184. childhood disease characterized by faulty ossification of bone
    rickets
  185. condition characterized by the softening of bone
    osteomalacia
  186. inflammation of a joint
    arthritis
  187. deficiency in the secretion of the thyroid gland
    hypothyroidism
  188. acromegaly is a disease resulting from overactivity of which endocrine glands
    pituitary
  189. congenital dificiency in pituitary secretion may result in..
    pituitary dwarfism
  190. disease resulting from adrenal gland deficiency and characterized by bronzing of the skin
    Addison's disease
  191. disease associated with the Islets of Langerhans of the pancreas marked by an insufficient production of insulin
    diabetes mellitus
  192. complication of diabetes mellitus
    • arteriosclerosis
    • vascular obstruction
    • gangrene

    all of these
  193. disease characterized by obesity and muscular weakness associated with abnormal function of the adrenal gland
    Cushing's Syndrome
  194. types of aneurysms
    dissecting and fusiform

    (4 only)
  195. disorder of the pituitary gland characterized by intense thirst and the excretion of large amounts of urine
    diabetes insipidus
  196. atrophy of the thyroid gland in adults may result in..
    myxedema
  197. dilated protion of an artery
    aneurysm
  198. malignant tumor of the skin could be..
    Epithelioma
  199. cardiac insufficiency might by the result of..
    rheumatic fever
  200. would be a predisposing cause of disease
    sex
  201. would NOT be a form of emboli

    (emboli- blood clot or air bubble carried in bloodsteam to lodge in vessel and cause embolism)
    adhesions
  202. Polycythemia vera is an uncontrolled increase of..
    red blood cells
  203. signs of a disease process
    • redness and swelling
    • altered function and heat

    (1 and 4)
  204. coryza is a condition affecting the__system
    respiratory
  205. tumor-like swelling filled with blood may be called..
    hematoma
  206. number of symptoms taken together which indicates the presence of a particular disease
    syndrome
  207. type of pigmented tumor
    nevus
  208. thrombus
    blood clot within the heart or vessels
  209. Glomerulonephritis affects the capillaries of the..
    kidneys
  210. diabetes mellitus is associated with the malfunction of which gland
    pancreas
  211. type of edema which affects the scrotum
    hydrocele
  212. petechia are types of..
    hemorrhages
  213. graves disease is caused by
    hyperthyroidism
  214. name for the chronic end-stage of liver disease wherein the functional cells of the liver are replaced by a lower form of cells
    cirrhosis
  215. widespread "pin-point" hemorrhages more commonly known as..
    petechia
  216. failure to deliver oxygenated blood to the body tissues is a problem primarily affecting the..
    heart
  217. spread of tumors via the lymph or bloodstream
    metastasis
  218. condition in which the structure and function of the body is altered as a result of injury to the tissues
    disease
  219. collection of pus surrounded by an inflammatory wall
    abscess
  220. examples of the cardinal symptoms of inflammation EXCEPT
    algor
  221. another name for pleural effusion
    hydrothorax
  222. excessive amount of blood in a body part due to decreased venous drainage
    passive hyperemia
  223. new and abnormal formation of tissue
    neoplasm
  224. toxic condition associated with renal insufficiency
    uremia
  225. condition caused by a deficiency of some sort
    • Myxedema
    • Dwarfism
    • Rickets

    all of these
  226. Enteritis is associated with..
    small intestine
  227. the thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of the walls of the arteries
    arteriosclerosis
  228. hereditary disease of exocrine glands, especially affecting the pancreas and respiratory system with occlusion, infections, and cyst formation
    cystic fibrosis
  229. deficiency of circulating red blood cells
    anemia
  230. marrow suppression resulting from drugs and/or chemicals, radiation, infection and metabolic disorders
    aplastic anemia
  231. fibrosarcoma
    malignant fibrous tissue
  232. melanoma
    malignant epithelium tissue
  233. adenocarcinoma
    malignant glandular epithelium tissue
  234. myoma
    benign muscle tissue
  235. glioma
    malignant nerve tissue
  236. hemangioma
    benign blood vascular tissue
  237. angiosarcoma
    malignant vascular tissue
  238. prefix "myelo" means
    spinal cord
  239. prefix "necro" means
    death
  240. prefix "osteo" means
    bone
  241. prefix "sarco" means
    flesh
  242. suffix "algia" means
    pain
  243. when a thrombus is released into the blood stream, it is then known as a(n)..
    embolism
  244. suffix "cele" means
    sac-like dilation
  245. suffix "pathy" means
    disease
  246. tumors that are malignant EXCEPT
    adenoma
  247. infarct
    dead tissue
  248. example of inflammation caused by bacteria
    infection
  249. type of inflammation caused by irritating gases
    chemical
  250. technical term used in pathology for pain
    dolor
  251. prefix "cyto" means
    cell
  252. prefix "encephalo" means
    brain
  253. prefix "neo" means
    new
  254. various pathological processes indicating a disturbance in cell metabolism
    regressive tissue changes
  255. leads to jaundice
    excess bilirubin in the blood
  256. disease which is a state of being poisoned by a drug or toxic substance
    intoxicating disease
  257. disease of unknown origin
    idiopathic
  258. disease which shows an alternating increase and decrease in the severity of its symptoms
    recurrent disease
  259. NOT an important argument promoting autopsies
    it aids in the prognosis of the disease
  260. anthracosis is caused by
    coal dust
  261. benign stalked growth commonly found on the mucous membranes
    polyp
  262. term suppuration refers to what material
    pus
  263. unlikely postmortem condition to be found in a cancer victim
    hypothermia (subnormal body temp.)
  264. closed sac or pouch with a definite wall which contains fluid, semi-fluid, or solid material
    cyst
  265. term represents a type of aneurysm
    dissecting
  266. typical lesions of rheumatic heart disease
    aschoff bodies
  267. appendicitis is a disease of the..
    digestive system

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