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2012-04-28 20:25:24
Bio 2114 Final

Bio 2114 Final
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  1. Increases heart rate, constricts blood vessels, dilates air passages. Flight or Fight Response.

    Origin-Sympathetic Nervous System (Adrenal Gland)
    Epinephrine (adrenaline)
  2. Origin--Pancreas

    Regulate carbs and fat metabolism in the body. Produce glucose from the blood, and store it as glycogen inside tissues.
  3. Origin--Pituitary Gland

    Stimulates growth, cell reproduction and regeneration.

    Amino-acid, single chain polypeptide
    Growth Hormone
  4. Origin--Pituitary Gland

    Regulates the development, growth, puberty and reproductive processes of the body
  5. Origin--Brain

    Plays role for social reproduction, particular during and after childbirth.
    Stimulates birth and breastfeeding
  6. Produced in response to biological stress
    ACTH--adrenocorticotropic hormone
  7. Secretes T(4) and T(3), which regulates the function of the thyroid gland
    TSH-- Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
  8. Plays a role in lactation, regulates the immune system.

    Origin--Pituitary Gland
  9. Reduces blood calcium, ipposing the effects of the parathyroid hormone.

    Origin--C-cells of the thyroid
  10. Released in response to stress
    Increases blood sugar
    Suppresses the immune system
    Aids in fat, protein and carb metabolism

    Origin--Adrenal Gland
  11. Increases reabsorption of ions and water in the kidney
    Increases blood volume (which increases blood pressure)

    Origin--Adrenal Cortex
  12. Prevents the production of dilute urine
    Can also stimulate the contraction of arteries and capillaries

    Origin--Pituitary Gland
  13. Regulation of metabolism


    Origin--thyroid gland
  14. Also works to regulate metabolism

    Iodine stimulates this

    AKA T(3)

    Origin--Thyroid gland
  15. Increases the concentration of calcium in the blood

    origin--Chief cells of the parathyroid gland
  16. Neurotransmitter that affects the heart

    Increase heart rate
    Triggers glucose release
    Part of "fight or flight" response

    Origin--Sympatheic Nervous System
  17. Name and describe the 2 types of diabetes
    Type I--insulin dependent, pancreas stops breaking down glucose in body. Cannot be controlled by diet and exercise. No Cure

    Type II--Pancreas still works but not properly. Usually controlled by diet and exercise, but may have to use medication orally or by insulin injections to control.
  18. Describe the systemic blood circulation
    Oxygenated blood--Pulmonary Veins--Lt.Atrium--AV (bicuspid) Valve--Lt. Ventricle--Aorta
  19. Describe the pulmonary blood circulation
    Deoxygenated blood--Rt. Ventricle--AV (tricuspid) vlave--semilunar valve--Pulmonary Artery--Lungs
  20. Known as "heart strings"....thread-like bands of fivrous tissue that anchor the valves
    Chordae tendinea
  21. Major element of cardiac contraction system.
    Controls heart rate
    Electric impulses that stimulate heart to contract
    AV Node (atrivoventricular)
  22. Minimum arterial pressure during relaxation and dilation of the ventricles of the heart
  23. Maximum arterial pressure during contraction of the left ventricle of the heart
  24. Repeated elevated blood pressure over 140/90
  25. Name and function of the 3 types of blood vessels
    Arteries--Carry blood away from the heart--Has 3 layers

    Capillaries--Enable exchange of water and chemicals btween blood and tissue--Endothelium & connective tissue

    Veins--Carry blood from capillaries back to the heart--2 layers
  26. Name the arteries that nourish the heart
    Coronary Arteries
  27. Name/Describe/Function of different blood cells
    Erthrocyte--RBC--most numerous in body--No nucleus, bioconcave shape--Provide oxygen to tissues

    Platelets--Thrombocytes--Purple color, small in shape--Stops the loss of blood from wounds

    Leukocytes (WBC)--2 types:granulocytes & agranulocytes--Provide defense of an organism
  28. Components of plasma
    • 90% water
    • 10% matter

    Includes: glucose,lipids, proteins, glycoproteins, hormones, amino acid, vitamins
  29. Major function of cardiovascular system
    • To transport oxygen and remove carbon monoxide
    • Transport nutrients and remove waste
    • Fight disease
    • Transport horomones
    • Regulate temperture
  30. 3 functions of blood
    Transport to and from tissue (Arteries, Veins, Capillaries)

    Maintain homeostasis (Altering blood flow to skin)

    Immunity and defense(WBC fight infection)
  31. Name the granulocytes
    neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil
  32. Name the agranulocytes
    lymphocytes and monocytes