new geo info

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new geo info
2012-04-27 01:16:48
new geo info

new geo info
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  1. What type of plants that do not have vascular tissue?
  2. What is the most dominant group of plants that do have vascular tissue?
  3. What are the most common tracheophyta?
  4. How are plants distinguished from algae?
    Plants have an embryo
  5. Whats the order of the plant life cycle?
    sporophyte (diploid) > spores > gameophyte (haploid) > eggs and sperm > embryo
  6. What is the first evidence for land plants?
  7. Spore tetrads were found around ______ and were global by ______.
    mid-late Ordovician, early Silurian
  8. Sheets of cells which are similar to some modern plants were found during the ______.
    late ordovician
  9. Trilete spores were early evidence of ___________.
    tracheophyte plants
  10. Oldest Trilete spores are _______.
    early silurian
  11. What is the name of an Early Devonian Tracheophyte plant?
  12. What is the simplest living tracheophyte plant that lacks roots and leaves, and related to ferns?
  13. What were the first very successful plants?
  14. The oldest ferns are from what time?
    early Carboniferous
  15. What is the oldest lineage of living plants?
    lycopodella and lycopodium (no roots)
  16. Small primative lycopods were found when?
  17. What is the name of a late Silurian lycophyta?
  18. What were the earliest known trees?
    Wattieza (8m tall)
  19. The earliest known trees were found in the ______.
    Middle Devonian
  20. First successful group of trees were the ______.
  21. The first successful group of trees were found in what period?
    Late Devonian
  22. What were 3 characteristics of the first successful group of trees?
    Spore bearing, related to ferns, formed the first forests
  23. What were the earliest seed-bearing plants called?
    seed ferns (pteridospermophyta)
  24. When did the earliest seed-bearing plants appear?
    Late Devonian
  25. What were the first trees to have cones and that live in an upland dry habitat?
  26. What were the ancestors to the conifers?
  27. Loss of an enormous loss of diversity of marine invertebrates and vertebrates?
    End of Permian Mass Extinction
  28. During the time period of the mass of Continents called Pangea what happened?
    Shallow water around the shore of continents was eliminated, no barriers between animals, and drained all continental seas
  29. Obducted deep-sea rocks in Japan called deep-sea anoxia was found in the ______.
    Late Permain
  30. What was the cause of the Permian-Triassic strata in the Australian alps?
    Shift of C13 in the limestone
  31. What is the single largest basaltic volcano that caused an enormous loss and disruption of the eco-system?
    Siberian Traps
  32. When did the Siberian Traps erupt and cause an enormous loss and disruption of the eco-system?
    1 million years ago, end of Permian
  33. The Mesozoic Era (251-65.5 m.yr) was marked by _______.
    Mass extinctions
  34. Thick evaporites built up in the Gulf of Mexico region called ______, formed rom salt domes.
    Luann Salt
  35. When did Luann Salt build up in the Gulf of Mexico?
  36. Tectonic events like rifting that created fault basins, where evaporites accumulated as seawater leaked into the basin, that are called the _______.
    Triassic Rift Basins
  37. What are some characteristics of rift basins?
    Filled with clastic sediments (feldspar), rapid deposition, arid conditions, close to source
  38. What was the layered mafic intrusion associated with rifting in the eastern US?
    Palisades Sill (enormous outcrop of dark rock, basaltic material)
  39. When was the Nevadan Orogeny?
  40. When was the Sevier Orogeny?
  41. North America grew by accrestion of exotic terranes like ______ and ______.
    Island arc terranes (Golconda Arc) and microplates (Sonomia, Oregon, Cali, Nevada)
  42. When was the first evidence of Dinosaurs?
    Late Triassic
  43. What is the name of the tiny dinosuromorph (thecodont) that is most like a dinosaur?
  44. One of the earliest known dinosaurs ________.
    Herrerasaurus Ischigualastensis
  45. The basic dinosaur classification is based on _______.
    pelvic bones
  46. What is the name for a bird type hip?
  47. What is the name for the lizard type hip?
  48. Dinosaurs of the Morrison Formation
    Allosaurus, Camarasaurus, Diplodocus, Stegosaurus
  49. What is the Jurassic dinosaur theropod from North America?
  50. What were the major flying animals during the Mesozoic, bird like with hollow bones?
  51. What were the 2 types of Pterosaurs?
    rhamphorhyncoids: late tri-late juras, long tails, many teeth, no crest and pterodactyloids: mid juras-late k, short tails, long hands, crests
  52. What was the largest thing to ever fly?
    Quetzalcoatlus Northropi
  53. What Dinosaur had a crest with hollow tubes that were a sound resonating chamber used for trumpeting?
    Crested Hadrosaurs
  54. What is the only known ornithischian dinosaur with possible feathers from the early Cretaceous?
    Tianyulong confuciusi
  55. Were late Cretaceous Crocodilians amphibians or reptiles?
  56. When were the Oviraptor found?
    Late Cretaceous
  57. What are three characteristics of the Therapsid to mammal transition in the Late Permian?
    Erect gait, secondary palate added to the roof of the mouth, mammalian arrangement of toe bones
  58. What were the two characteristics of the therapsid to mammal transition in the Mid Triassic?
    many differentiated teeth, and jaw bones become ear bones
  59. What were the two characteristics of the therapsid to mammal transition in the Early Jurassic?
    Teeth with no roots, fused neck rib
  60. What were the three characteristics of the therapsid to mammal transition in the Late Cretaceous?
    large brain, single dentary bone, forming lower jaw
  61. To be a mammal you must have a single _______ called the ________ that makes one contact with the ________ and have three ear bones.
    lower jaw, dentary, skull
  62. What are the three groups of mammals?
    Prototheria, Metatheria, Eutheria
  63. What was the only known dinosaur eating mammal of the Early Cretaceous and largest known mammal of the Mesozoic?
    Repenomamus giganticus
  64. What was the name of the Jurassic gliding mammal?
    Volitcotheria antiquus
  65. Where was the Middle Jurassic beaver like mammal found?
    Jiulongshan Formation in China
  66. What was a rat size ancestor to the Primates?
    Purgatorius unio
  67. Early Primate?
  68. What and when are the first global distributed, very successful group of mammals?
    multituberculates (bumps on molar teeth) mouse size
  69. What are the 4 tree-forming gymnosperms?
    conifers (very big), cycads (small), cycadeoids, ginkgoes (very distinctive leaf)
  70. Where is the petrified forest?
  71. Where are the silicified logs of conifer trees of the Triassic found?
    Chinle Formation
  72. Flowering plants were starting to take over by _______.
    Mid Cretaceous
  73. What were the two most primitive common plants?
    magnolias and water lilies
  74. Pollen leaves of flowering plants from _________ in Maryland show increased complexity and diversity over 10 million years.
    Potomac group
  75. What caused the End-Triassic mass extinction?
    global warming (volcanic activity released high volumes of CO2, number of leaf stomata (cells that utilize CO2) increased
  76. What caused the End-Cretaceous Mass Extinction?
    meteorite impact (iridium anomaly, shocked quartz, extinction patterns)
  77. What died out because of the End-Cretaceous Mass Extinction?
    Dinosaurs (expect birds), all ammonoid cephlopods, mosasours and other marine reptiles, reduction in gymnosperms and angiosperms, and 90% of calcareous nannoplankton and foraminifera
  78. What is the second largest deposition of basaltic material?
    Deccan Traps, India
  79. What is a result of the terminal Cretaceous Iridium anomaly?
    Deccan Traps, India
  80. Striated dolomite blasted from Yucatan to Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary deposits in Belize are evidence of _______.
    The meteorite impact that caused the End-Cretaceous Mass Extinction
  81. More evidence of the meteorite impact at the end of the Cretaceous shows ________.
    microspherules from K-Paleo boundary in Wyoming
  82. The impact site of the meteorite at the end of the Cretaceous was at ______.
    Chicxulub Yucatan, Mexico (gravity shows buried crator)
  83. The End-Cretaceous meteorite also caused _______ to the atmosphere.
    no sunlight for long time, collapsed food web, cold due to darkness, fires
  84. Basins and ranges like the eastern most uplift of the Black hills during the Eocene signify the ________ Orogeny.
  85. 27 Stacked petrified Eocene forests were found in _______.
    Lamar Valley, Yellowstone Park
  86. The world’s largest estuary during the Late Eocene was the meteorite impact at __________.
    Chesapeake Bay
  87. How do we know about the Late Eocene-Oligocene Glaciation?
    leaf margin data and oxygen isotopes in deep-sea foraminifera
  88. What were the causes of Antarctica glaciation?
    -rifting of Australia from Antarctica permitted circumpolar current to develop, isolation of Antarctica from warm surface ocean currents
  89. 20 million years ago was the start of the Himalayas because of what?
    Indian Plate Movement
  90. The greatest uplift during the past 15 million years was that of the subducting crust of the ________.
    Indian plate
  91. Neogene Period block fault uplift caused the _______.
    Grand Tetons
  92. North America, except Greenland, was free of continental glaciers by ______ years ago.
  93. What was some evidence for the Ice ages?
    Erratic boulders, glacial till, isostatic depression of crust, glacial scouring, evidence of higher and lower sea level, migration of plants and animals, hanging valleys, glacial lakes
  94. What lake was 325 miles long and by draining cause the snake river canyon?
    Lake Bonneville
  95. 10,000 years ago what lake caused giant ripples and formed channeled scablands by draining?
    Lake Missoula
  96. How can we tell that there was a climate change?
    migration of vegetation, oxygen isotope data, data from deep-sea foraminifera in sediment cores
  97. What caused ice ages?
    Isthmus of Panama, Gulf Stream warm saline water, conveyor belt, Northern hemisphere cold (arctic became isolated)
  98. What hypothesis supports warm wet winters, cool summers, and co-occurring triggers like precession, tilt, and elliptical orbit that cause major glaciation?
    Milankovitch Orbital Hypothesis
  99. What were some characteristics of Hominoidea Apes?
    no tail, males larger than females, omnivorous, complex social behaviors, complex vocalizations, single offspring, extended parental care
  100. In the early Miocene, what caused Africa to have more arid climates?
    The collision of Arabia into Asia, and Africa into Europe that affected ocean circulation
  101. How did increased aridity affect the landscape of Africa?
    grasslands turned into savannas, increase in grazers, growth of deserts
  102. What was a possible ape ancestor before the monkey found in the Oligocene of Egypt?
  103. Hominids first appear in the _________, there were up to 100 species in Europe, Asia, and Africa.
  104. Apes originated 20 million years ago in _______.
  105. What lead to the evolution of ape populations into different species 13.5 to 8 million years ago?
    sea level rise that led to continental isolation
  106. What is the name of the apes that started in Europe and went back to Africa?
  107. What is the name of the apes that started in Asia?
  108. Climate change led to extinction of most European and Asian apes _________ million years ago.
    9 to 6
  109. The earliest undisputed ape, 23 to 14 million years ago was the _______.
    Proconsul africanus
  110. Miocene of East African earliest known apes, at least 4 species?
  111. What were the two Miocene Hominoid Lineages (16 to 14 million years ago)?
    Sivapithecids and Dryopithecus
  112. Which of the two Miocene Hominoid lineages spent time foraging on the ground, had powerful jaws, ate nuts and fruit, and were the ancestors of orangutans?
  113. Which of the two Miocene Hominoid lineages lived 13 million years ago in Africa and are the ancestors of chimps and humans?
  114. What were the largest known primateds that died out 300,000 years ago in Asia?
  115. Which of the apes are our closest relatives?
  116. What percentage of human DNA is shared with apes?
  117. What are the morphological differences between Panidae and Hominidae?
    posture, rotation of pelvic girdle, curvature of spine, articulation between skull and vertebral column, upright bipedalism
  118. Great apes and hominins diverged from a common ancestor _____ million years ago.
  119. What developed in hominids when they left forests for grasslands and open woodlands?
  120. In addition to flat feet and loss of opposable toes how did the hominids change as they evolved farther away from apes?
    forelimbs adapted for grasping and manipulation, hind-limbs adapted for terrestrial locomotion
  121. The change to a shorter U-shaped jaw with smaller teeth resulted from ________.
    A change in diet
  122. Fossils of the early humans were found in _______.
    Afar region of Africa and the Rift Valley in Africa
  123. Southern apes from 4.2 to 3.9 million years ago that were upright walkers and had a transitional jaw type were ___________.
    Australopithecus anamensis
  124. Apes that had a similar skeleton to a human, except longer arms, u shaped jaw, and a transitional pelvis, for example: Lucy?
    Australopithecus afarensis
  125. Some of the first visible tracks of bipedal and fully erect walkers are found at ________.
    Tracks at Laetoli
  126. Homo that had increased brain size, used stone tools, and reduced jaw size?
    Homo Habilis
  127. Homo that had controlled use of fire, 1 million years old, used tools, and were adapted for walking and running, not climbing?
    Homo erectus
  128. What is the hypothesis that all modern humans evolved from a single african female or a small closely related population about 200,000 years ago?
    Mitochondrial eve hypothesis
  129. What is the hypothesis that descendants migrated from Africa to replace hominids?
    Out of Africa Hypothesis
  130. Most abundant Mesozoic vertebrate marine life?
  131. Largest known teleost fossil, 5m long, had prey in its belly?
  132. Blunt-toothed shell crushers with broad armored bodies that lived only in the Triassic in shallow water?
  133. What were the early triassic marine life that may be the first marine reptiles?
  134. Turtle-like reptiles that evolved from nothosaurs and lived in the Jurassic and Cretaceous?
  135. Fish lizards that bore live young and lived from the Triassic to the Cretaceous?
  136. Very big lizard creatures that ate their whole prey whole and lived in the Cretaceous?
  137. Oldest known fossil turtles are Triassic from shallow marine deposits in _______.
  138. The biggest turtles are found in the _________ of South Dakota.
    Pierre Shale
  139. What did mammals evolve from?
    cynodont therapsids
  140. What were the thecodonts that were the ancestors of dinosaurs, birds, pterosaurs, and crocodilians?
  141. Eastward subduction in the Jurassic led to ___________.
    intrusions and volcanoes (Sierra Nevada batholiths magma chambers)
  142. What is the Orogeny that is known as the Cordilleran (Rocky) Mountain Building that was thin-skinned thrusting on weak sedimentary rocks?
  143. What Orogeny had a shallowing angle of subduction, magmatic belt shifting east, and deep-seated thrusts?
  144. What sea arose in the Jurassic due to global sea level rise, that also flooded the US and got filled with sediments of the Morrison formation?
    Sundance Sea
  145. What formation contains more dino fossils that any other place in the world?
    Morrison Formation
  146. Rapid sea-floor spreading (oceanic ridges) caused high sea level in the _________.
  147. What seaway extended from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic in the Late Cretaceous?
    Western Interior Seaway
  148. What evolved in respect to Mesozoic Marine life?
    sea urchins, hermit crabs, crabs, shrimp, lobsters
  149. What are the dominant reef builders?
  150. There was rapid evolution of _________in the pelagic realm of the Mesozoic marine life.
    ammonoids (index taxon)
  151. Squid-like relatives of ammonoids?
  152. Dominant herbivores, beaked mammals?
  153. Aquatic forms related to crocodillians?
    Crurotarsi Phytosaurs
  154. What are the monotremes (Prototheria)?
    egg laying mammals
  155. What was among the dominant groups of large trees in the Jurassic Period?
  156. What is the significance of Chicxulub? (What, when, where, result)?
    impact crater, Yukatan Mexico, End of Cretaceous, Mass extinctions
  157. The fossils called Archaeopteryx are what type of animals?
    Avas (earliest birds)
  158. Pterosaurs are divided into major groups based on presence or absence of what body part?
    long tail or no tail
  159. What is the elevated amount of the element iridium that occurs in Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary deposits in many areas thought to signify?
    an asteroid that hit earth
  160. The oldest known fossil dinosaurs are mostly from Argentine, and are found in rocks of which geologic period?
    Late Triassic
  161. When, what, and where are the Deccan Traps?
    Mass of basaltic material in India at the end of the Cretaceous
  162. Which group of plants has been the dominant group since sometime in the late Cretaceous period?
    angiosperms= flowering plants
  163. What is the distinctive feature of the ankylosaurs?
    body armour
  164. The largest flying animals that ever existed belonged to what group?
  165. What specific lineage of dinosaurs included the largest land animal to ever exist on Earth?
  166. What types of plants were not abundant in the Jurassic Period?
  167. Was the name Oviraptor for some small carnivorous dinosaurs the result of a mistake identity?
  168. Name a specific type of mammal that is known from the fossil record of the Mesozoic Era.
  169. What are the main types of trees fossilized at the Petrified Forest National Park?
  170. What is one of the earliest types of flowering plants?
  171. Why is it that Middle to Late Cretaceous feathered dinosaurs cannot be the ancestors of birds?
    Birds already existed
  172. How many fingers does a TRex have?
  173. During which period did the Nevadan magmatic belt and Nevadan Orogeny occur?
  174. When was the meteorite impact in the Chesapeake Bay area?
    Eocene Epoch
  175. When did Australia fully separate from Antarctica and circum-Antarctica Current develop?
    Oligocene Epoch
  176. When does India’s collision with Tibet cause an early uplift of Himalayas and Tibet Plateau.
    Oligocene Epoch
  177. When was their repeated massive Northern Hemisphere glacial interglacial cycles of 100,000 years and the evolution of modern humans?
    Pleistocene Epoch
  178. What was a warm interglacial period of human agriculture and animal domestication where the modern world develops?
    Holocene Epoch