Women's History Final

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Women's History Final
2012-05-04 16:30:56
Progressive era 19th amendment second wave feminism WWI WWII

identifications for test and info for long and short essay
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  1. Settlement Houses
    • Who: Jane Addams was inspired by the settlement houses in Europe on a trip with Ellen Gates Star and wanted to bring them to the United States
    • What: Addams created Hull House in Chicago to help the immigrant working class; catered to mother's and their children; provide help and support; tackle small issues(garbage collection) and large issues(corruption in city politics)
    • When: Hull House opened in 1889 and grew into 13 buildings by 1907
    • Where: Settlement houses started with Hull House in Chicago, Illinois and spread to New York and Boston by 1890
    • Why: Addams wanted to help the poor and educate them; she had bigger plans and used the settlement house as a base for political action.
    • Significance: educated young women would live or work in settlement houses and help fight for political action; Addams chosen to second the nomination of Theodore Roosevelt for President on the 1912 ticket of the Progressive Party, which incorporated many of Hull-House's reform measures into it's national platform
  2. Protective Labor Legislation
  3. Great Migration
    • Who: blacks living in the South
    • When: 1916 to 1921
    • Where: 5 million blacks from the South(5%) headed for northern industrial cities
    • What: black women took over the domestic and janitorial jobs that white women abandoned; were usually assigned the worst jobs and segregated; men took jobs in the factories
    • Why: moved North for jobs out of the fields and to cities for the industrial work
    • Significance: this led to a second rise of the KKK and the Women's KKK that was even bigger; these groups were racist, anti-semantic, and anti-Catholic; also led to riots in cities such as East St. Louis(1917), Tulsa(1921), and Chicago(1919)
  4. National League of Republican Colored Women
    • When: 1920's; after suffrage
    • Why: women were given the right to vote and they wanted colored women to register to vote and to educate them
    • What: active in the party system; active in politics; the majority of blacks voted Republican; worked hard to get Hoover into office; invited to the inaugural ceremony but it was rescinded
    • Significance: growing black dissatisfaction with the government; led to the start of the more blacks voting democratic by the New Deal
  5. ERA debate of the 1920's
    • What: Equal Rights Amendment;establish equality btwn the sexes by ending all legal barriers faced by women on account of sex; not part of the protective legislation of women; rejected by Congress in 1923
    • Who: National Women's Party; Alice Paul though protective legislation would keep women from being treated as equals; supporter of the protective legislation is Mary Anderson, director of the Women's Bureau; Florence Kelley of the National Consumers' League believed that women would always need laws that differ from men because they are NOT men.
    • Where: legislation in the workplace
    • When: the 1920's
    • Why: reformers fighting for more protection in the workplace for women vs. the reformers wanted to outlaw discrimination on account of sex; each side is detrimental to the other
    • Significance: more women were joining the working force and the government needed to decide what kind of stance and action to take; debate over women equality in society
  6. Eleanor Roosevelt
    • Who: uncle is Theodore Roosevelt; marries Franklin D. Roosevelt
    • What: she forges a political career with FDR; a very active first lady; promoted women's issues(worked with journalist Lorena Hickok for civil rights; works with Molly Dewson in 1932 campaign, Women's Division of the Democratic National Committee); travels all around the country
    • When: in 1921, Eleanor's political career began; throughout FDR's presidency
    • Why: when FDR was diagnosed with polio, Eleanor's political career took off; she wanted to bring women's issues to the white house and to recieve the attention they deserve
    • Significance: Eleanor brought many women's issues to her husband and to the attention of Americans
  7. Social Security Act, 1935
    • What: a governmental program that created pensions for the elderly; pillar of the new welfare program; only certain types of workers included; excluded; majority of white women excluded
    • Why: to allow older ppl to retire allowing younger people to work
    • Who: Those NOT included= farmers/seasonal workers, domestic servants, even some in covered categories due to how long they worked; majority of black men and women; mainly for white men
    • When: 1935
    • Significance: shows the discrimination in the work force and how the minorities were treated unfairly; led to more acts such as Aid to Dependent Children which gave money to widowed women to take care of their children- still depends on job
  8. May Act, 1941
    • When: July 1941
    • What: made prostitution and the soliciting of sex near a military installation, a federal crime; mass quarenteening and jailing of women
    • Why: to control venereal diseases
    • Who: the American government was afraid of its soldiers getting venereal disease
    • Where: The May Act only affected American women; overseas, not all countries had laws against prostitution
    • Significance: Britain made laws limiting interactions of American soldiers and British women; Australia made a law in fear of American soldiers giving venereal diseases to the women by allowing the police to arrest anyone suspected of having a venereal disease despite nationality or gender.
    • Significance: during a time when women were supposed to be morale boosters but some took it too far= "patriotutes"; some women were arrested if they were walking alone and thought to be a prostitute; women were confused on their role in the war
  9. Red Scare and Lesbianism
    • Why: Fear of women's clubs being infiltrated by Communists; homosexuality seen as a mental disorder; homosexuals in government are spies
    • What: Militarists and manufacturers made up the "spider web chart"- connected feminist articles with the beliefs of Communists in their papers; Women were seen as easily influenced and push overs; ->the fear of women reform groups as actually be communists meetings; found at Federal, local and state levels; women mostly effected at local and state levels (teachers); were not given judicial review
    • Who: Joseph McCarthy thought that homosexuals in government wanted to take it over; Republicans use the issue; 1954- McCarthy censored for accusing the army of having communists
    • When: 1950's and during the Korean war
  10. The Feminine Mystique
    • Who: by Betty Friedan
    • When: 1963
    • Why: she wanted to show that the gender imperatives of the suburbs to be confining
    • What: questioned her former classmates; "mystique"as a women feeling worthlessness that came with being financially, intellectually,and emotionally dependent on their husbands; women living up to the expectations of the ideal woman found it unsatisfying
    • Significance: Stephanie Coontz wrote The Way We Never Were- no feminine mystique, Friedan was wrong; this was read by many women; from 1940-1960, the % of working women increased by 10% and 15% of wives working
  11. Liberal Feminism
    • Who: women of color played central roles in liberal feminist groups
    • Why: wanted to get more women into politics; the formation of the National Organization for Women caused liberal feminism to grow in force with a group of diverse women
    • What: did not want government interference in any part of their lives, including work, "freedom of person and property"
    • When: late 1960's
    • Significance: it brought women of all classes and ethnicities together; women were trying to get in politics so they could be part of the change and influence in a more direct matter
  12. Ella Baker
    • Why: joined the Southern Christian Leadership Conference- org in civil rights movement that formed after the Montgomery bus boycott of 1955-1956 led by Martin Luther King Jr., to make a grassroots org. that would be welcoming to the young and women->left; wanted to empower those that had been politically disenfranchised for generations
    • What: worked for the federal Works Progress Admin; in WWII, she headed the NYC branch of the NAACP; her and Fannie Lou Hamer wanted to raise the concerns of ordinary men and women-> brought a new generation of leaders and style of activism; used the Church and community networks for early success; spread through high schools and college campuses
    • Significance: brought a wider range of activists in several generations and brought it to the educated
  13. National Organization for Women
    • Who: Betty Friedan and Pauli Murray set up the org.
    • Why: at the Third Annual Conference on the Status of Women to ensure the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission would enforce the law
    • What: a feminist organization to promote women's equality; helped religious feminists as well- easter bonnets on Easter Sunday; devoted to promoting women's rights in all aspects of their lives
    • When: June 1966
    • Significance: allowed liber feminism to grow in force; brought the fight for women's equality to the private and public sphere; expanded it's affect on everyday life; more influential
  14. Women's Liberation
    • When: Second Wave Feminism
    • What: support and encourage eachother; fight for women's equality in schools as well; believed women need to get involved in government to make a difference
    • Why: wanted women to stop being discriminated against and disrespected by men
  15. STOP ERA
    • Who: Phyllis Schlafly- laid out the tenants of the anitfeminism that would define the conservative agenda- ERA threatened women's primary role as a mother; white middle class women
    • When: began July 7, 1972
    • What: Stop Taking Our Privileges ERA; a lot of religious women; major distinction btwn pro and anti-ERA supporters was church attendance; anti wore dresses and baked for legislators; time expired with three states left in the 38 state minimum and ERA wasn't ratified to the Constitution
    • Significance: led to the pro-family movement; the focus on the family was important
  16. Protective Labor Legislation
    • When: 1893 Illinois- have some success
    • What: laws aimed at women workers; need to protect, limit the number of hours women work; challenged by garment industry (1895 Illinois Supreme Court); deprived women of individual freedom of contract without due process of law (14th Amendment); equality (everything should be the same; men and women equal) vs. difference feminism (women are different, can't ignore that, if you do women are not treated equally)
    • Significance: Illinois Sup. court strikes down protective legislation; due process; married women's Property Act, 1874; married women admitted to bar, 1872