Geography 200, Exam 1

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Geography 200, Exam 1
2010-04-21 19:33:26
Ackerman Geography Spring

Flashcards for Ackerman's Geography 200 Spring 2010 class at OSU- Lima.
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  1. Local Functional Specialization
    Particular people in particular places concentrate on the production of particular goods
  2. Who wrote Concerning the Location of Industries?
    Alfred Weber
  3. Deglomerative
  4. Agglomerative
    Process involving the clustering or concentrating of people or activities
  5. What are the two questions geography asks?
    Where? and Why where?
  6. What are the four levels of regional classification?
    • 1. Landmasses and Oceans
    • 2. Geographic Realms
    • 3. Geographic Realms
    • 4. Subregions, Domains, and Districts
  7. Geographic Realm
    The basic spatial unit in our world regionalization scheme. Each realm is defined in terms of its total human geography- a composite of its leading cultural, economic, historical, political, and appropriate environment features.
  8. Spatial system
    The components and interactions of a functional region, which is defined by the areal extent of those interactions.
  9. Functional region
    A region marked less by its sameness than its dynamic internal structure; because it usually focuses on a central node, also called nodal region or focal region.
  10. Functional specialization
    The production of particular goods or services as a dominant activity in a particular location.
  11. Scale
    Representation of a real-world phenomenon at a certain level of reduction or generalization. Macroscale refers to a large area of national proportions; microscale refers to a local area no bigger than a county.
  12. Transition zones
    An area of spatial change where the peripheries of two adjacent realms or regions join; marked by a gradual shift in the characteristics that distinguish these neighboring geographic entities from one another.
  13. What is the Koppen-Geiger map?
    Map by Wladimir Koppen and Rudolf Geiger that represents climatic regions through a system of letter symbols.
  14. What are the A climates in the Koppen-Geiger map? What characterizes these climates?
    Humid Equatorial; high temperatures all year and heavy precipation
  15. What characterizes Af subclimates?
    substantial amounts of rainfall every month
  16. What characterizes Am climate areas?
    annual wet monsoon, marking a sudden enormous increase in precipitation
  17. Where are Af climates?
    tropical rainforest
  18. Where are Am climates?
    peninsular India, coastal area of West Africa, and sections of Southeast Asia
  19. What are Aw climates? What characterizes this climate?
    savanna; wider daily and annual temperature range and a more strongly seasonal distribution of rainfall.
  20. What characterizes each major world realm?
    A special combination of cultural, physical, historical, economic, and organizational qualities.
  21. How do most regional boundaries appear in the landscape?
    As transition zones rather than razor-sharp lines.
  22. Explain how regionalization is the geographer's means of classification.
    According to selected criteria, specific meanings are assigned to certain areas.
  23. Why is relative location a more practical measure than absolute location?
    Absolute location refers only to latitude and longitude, whereas relative location refers to a place in terms of its position relative to other regions.
  24. How does a formal region differ from a functional region?
    Formal regions are marked by internal homogeneity; functional regions are defined by their structuring as spatial systems.
  25. How can certain regions be conceptualized as systems?
    Non-uniform regions are marked by a set of integrated activites that interconnect their various parts.
  26. What is meant by the term plate tectonics?
    The recently proven theory that the Earth's crust consists of a set of rigid plates that are in motion, producing great stresses at their boundaries.
  27. What are interglacials?
    The relative warm spells that separate glaciations.
  28. Why are equatorial and tropical areas generally well-watered locations?
    The hydrologic cycle is most efficient in high heat and humidity- carrying larger amounts of evaporated ocean water to fall as rain.
  29. What are the general features of A climates?
    Humid tropical climtes that are high-heat and high-moisture; important subtypes are rainforest, savanna, and monsoon climates.
  30. What are the general features of B climates?
    Dryness is dominant, and they occur in lower, middle, and higher latitudes; semiarid steppe and arid dessert are the major subtypes.
  31. What are BW climates?
    Dry, true desert
  32. What are BS climates?
    dry, semiarid steppe
  33. What are the general features of C climates?
    Humid, temperate, mid-latitude cliamtes; found in easter U.S., Western Europe, and elsewhere; Mediterranean climate is a major subtype.
  34. What are C climates?
    humid temperate climates
  35. Where are C climates?
    just beyond the Tropics of Cancer and Capricon (23 1/2 degrees North and South latitude)
  36. Where can Cfb climate be found?
    much of northwestern Europe and northwestern coast of North America, a climate zone oftern called Marine West Coast
  37. What characterizes Csa and Csb climates?
    Mediterranean climate with dry summers
  38. What are the general features of D climates?
    Humid cold climates most prominent in the higher-latitude interiors of large Northern Hemisphere landmass; huge annual temperature ranges
  39. What subtype climate is Ohio and most of America that is also good for agriculture?
  40. These are sometimes referred to as "snow climates."
    D climates
  41. What are the general features of E climates?
    Cold polar cliamtes, differentiated into tundra and icecap subtypes.
  42. Where do no D climates exist?
    in the Southern Hemisphere
  43. What are the H climates?
    Undifferentiated high-altitude climates of mountains at any latitude; much like the E climates... Highlands
  44. Where are the four largest population agglomerations located?
    In descending size: East Asia, South Asia, Europe, and Eastern North America.
  45. What are the main features of the East Asian population cluster?
    China's Huang and Chang/ Yanzi river valleys; dominately rural population
  46. What are the main features of the South Asian population cluster?
    India's Ganges Lowland, Pakistan, and all of Bangladesh; heavily rural
  47. What are the main features of the European population cluster?
    A central east-west poplulation axis, orientated to industrial resources and highly urbanized.
  48. What are the main features of the North American population cluster?
    A pattern like the European cluster, dominated by metropolitan complexes along the northeastern U.S. seaboard.
  49. What is the North American population cluster often referred to as?
  50. What exactly is the cultural landscape?
    According to Carl Sauer, the composite imprints and forms superimposed on the physical landscape by human activites.
  51. How can humans leave their imprint on the land surface?
    In numerous ways, because people are agents of change; their structures and artifacts progessively transform natural into cultural landscapes.
  52. How many political units are there today?
    In 2008, more than 190 national states.
  53. What is the European state model?
    A state with a legally defined territory, inhabited by a population governed from a capital city by a representative government.
  54. What is the central concern of economic geography?
    Studying the varied ways in which people earn a living, and how the goods and services they produce are spatially distributed and organized.
  55. What are the four economic groups that countries are divided into?
    High income, upper-middle income, lower-middle income, and low income.
  56. Why is the world no longer simply divided into "developed" and "undeveloped" countries?
    Many countries, despite their overall level of income, display cores of development that resemble rich societies, and peripheries of extreme poverty.
  57. What are some of the obstacles that underprivleged areas face?
    Beyond a disadvantageous position in the global economic system, less advantaged countries exhibit political instability, corrupt leadership, misdirected priorities, and misused aid.
  58. What is a geographic realm?
    A geographic realm is a large regional unit based on broad multiple criteria- reflecting physical, economic, political, urban, historical, and population as well as cultural geography.
  59. What are the 12 geographic realms?
    • Europe
    • Russia
    • North America
    • Middle America
    • South America
    • Subsaharan Africa
    • North Africa/ Southwest Asia
    • South Asia
    • East Asia
    • Southeast Asia
    • Austral Realm
    • Pacific Realm
  60. Where is Europe's eastern boundary?
    Some scholars insist it is the Ural Mountains, while others argue that all western Russia is a transition zone
  61. What types of raw materials spawned Europe's development?
    Early on, rich soils, good fishing waters, domesticatable animals, and plentiful wood for building. Later, mineral fuels and ores made industrialization possible.
  62. What are the major characteristics of the Central Uplands?
    Forms the heart of Europe; a resource-ladden belt where Industrial Revoluations and cities emerged in the 19th century.
  63. What are the major characteristics of the Alpine Mountains?
    The Alps and their outliers (the Pyrenees and Carpathians) forming a high-mountain backbone
  64. What are the major characteristics of the Western Uplands?
    Rugged, older highlands often located along stormy oceanic fringes; represent earlier geological mountain building than the Apline system
  65. What are the major characteristics of the North European Lowland?
    Densest populations of the realm are found here; historic route of human contact and migration, yet much internal variation in generally low-lying terrain; also contains much of Europe's most productive agriculture and a multitude of navigable rivers.
  66. What area was the heart of the ancient civilization of Greece? And what were some Greek contributions?
    The eastern Mediterranean formed the core of a large empire that was eventually defeated by Rome. Political science and philosophy, as well as architecture, sculpture, literature, and education marked early Greek society.
  67. What additional contributions did the Romans make to empire-building?
    Politico-territorial organization on a much wider scale, extending from Britain to Persia and from the Black Sea to the lower Nile valley; internal diversity was a strength, fostering trade and exchange of ideas and innovations; unparalleled advances in agriculture, political, authority, urbanization, transportation, and development of local functional specialization.
  68. What were the lasting contributions of the Romans though the Dark Ages?
    Their language and its offshoots, Christianity, educational traditions.
  69. What were the main trends of the Renaissance?
    Reviving monarchies, early nation-state formation, beginnings of overseas colonial empires, political nationalism, and renewed interest in Greek and Roman achievements.
  70. What was the agrarian revolution?
    The transformation of European agriculture through changes in land tenure, improvements in farming techniques, equipment, storage, and distribution systems.
  71. What is the von Thunen model and what are its lasting virtues?
    Johann Heinrich von Thunen in 1826 introduced his model of commercial agricultural spatial organization which still applies to contemporary Europe at the macro-scale. Basically, agriculture will organize itself into a series of concentric zones around the major urban food market(s), with the most profitable farming activity location in each ring.
  72. What was the Industrial Revolution?
    The rapid growth of mass manufacturing through mechanization that triggered far-reaching social and economic change, demographic transition, and mass urbanization.
  73. Name the factors of industrial location enunciated by Alfred Weber.
    "General" factors such as transport costs, and "special" factors such as perishability in the case of certain foods; "regional" factors (transport and labor costs), and "local" factors of agglomeration and deglomeration; transport costs were seen as highly critical, with industrial plants most attracted to locate at the lowest transport-cost site(s).
  74. How did the political revolution after 1789 forever change Europe?
    Monarchies gave way to republics, democracy flourished, and nationalism became the dominant political force.
  75. What is a nation?
    A group of tightly knit people possessing bonds of language, ethnicity, religion, and other shared cultural attributes. Such homogeneity actually prevails within very few states.
  76. What is a nation-state?
    A political unit wherein the territorial state coincides with the area settled by a certain historical group of people, considering themselves to be a nation.
  77. What are centripetal and centrifugal forces?
    Centripetal forces unify a state; centrifugal forces are divisive or disunifying.
  78. Where does Europe rank among the urbanized realms?
    Nearly 75% of Europe's population lives in cities and towns.
  79. What is a primate city?
    According to Mark Jefferson's "law," a country's largest city that is simultaneously most expressive of the national culture and often the capital city as well
  80. What are Benelux and EEC? Name the countries of the European Union.
    Benelux (1944) involved the economic association of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg; EEC (1958) was the European Economic Community, originally comprised of France, (then West) Germany, Italy, and the Benelux nations. The countries of the European Union (EU) today are France, United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Greece, Denmark, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, the three Benelux countries, Finland, Austria, Sweden, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Romania, Bulgaria.
  81. What are the nations in Benelux?
    Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg
  82. What is devolution?
    The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government.
  83. What are the Four Motors of Europe?
    • 1) Rhone-Alpes region
    • 2) Lombardy
    • 3) Catalonia
    • 4) Baden-Wurttemberg
    • These sub national regions are hubs of economic power and influence which have developed direct linkages with one another, bypassing the capitals and governments of their countries.
  84. What is a regional state?
    As Ohmae states, a regional state is a sub national region with economic power that in its external relationships bypasses its national government, and deals directly with its blobal economic partners.
  85. What countries are in Western Europe?
    France, Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Austria, and Liechtenstein
  86. How long was Germany partitioned into East and West?
    From the end of World War II (1945) until the reunification of Germany in 1990.
  87. What is the difference between site and situation?
    Site refers to the internal, local physical and other attributes of a place; situation is the geographical position of a place or its external locational qualities.
  88. How are the economies of Belgium and the Netherlands complementary to each other?
    Belgium is a dominantly industrial country producing a large surplus of varied manufactured goods; the Netherlands is a largely agricultural country, producing substantial surpluses of several food commodities.
  89. Define conurbation.
    General term denoting a large multi-metropolitan complex formed by the coalescence of two or more major urban areas; the Randstad in the western Netherlands is an outstanding example.
  90. What is the Randstad?
    The Dutch "edge-city" conurbation linking Amsterdamn, the Hague, and Rotterdam.
  91. What are Switzerland's two leading cities?
    Zurich, the financial center, and Geneva, one of the worst international cities.
  92. What city and river are synonymous with Austria?
    Vienna and the Danube. The river, thanks to pollution, is now iron gray and not blue.
  93. In what way does Vienna represent an outpost?
    It is the easternmost city of Western Europe, on the doorstep of transforming Eastern Europe.
  94. What are the political components of the British Isles?
    Britain- containing England, Wales, and Scotland- and Ireland, which contains the Irish Republic (Eire) and Northern Ireland; all but Eire form the United Kingdom.
  95. What are the United Kingdom's five subregions, and how are they characterized?
    Affluent Southern England, struggling Northern England, individualistic Scotland, intractable Wales, and embattled Northern Ireland.
  96. Where did England's Industrialization Revolution originate and flower?
    In the Midlands arc surrounding the southern Pennines (Manchester, Sheffield, Leeds), where coal was plentiful (and in the Northeast too, though to a lesser degree); London was not directly involved.
  97. Which two nearby cities are the industrial and cultural foci of Scotland?
    Respectively, Glasgow and Edinburgh
  98. Who are the contestants for power in Northern Ireland?
    The Protestant majority, who constitute 54 percent of the residents, vs. the 45 percent who are Roman Catholic; the British are trying to prevent a civil war.
  99. Which countries constitute Nordic (Northern) Europe?
    Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Iceland, Finland, and Estonia.
  100. Why is southern Sweden much more densely populated than northern Sweden?
    In southern Sweden, relief is lower and more manageable, soils are better, and the climate is milder.
  101. How have the seas favored Norway in recent years?
    Huge deposits of oil and natural gas in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea yield both fuel supplies and heightened export income.
  102. What activities form the base of Finland's economy?
    Wood and wood products are the major exports. The manufacture of machinery, growth of staple crops, and telecommunications also play important roles.
  103. Why is Estonia considered to be part of Northern, rather than Eastern, Europe?
    Estonia shares close linguistic, ethnic, and historical-geographical ties with Finland.
  104. Which countries constitute Mediterranean Europe?
    Italy, Spain, Portugal, Greece, Cyprus, and Malta.
  105. What generalization can be made about the population distributions of Mediterranean Europe's countries?
    They are decidedly peripheral with large concentrations in productive coastal and riverine lowlands, with more recent growth of major industrial centers in northern Italy and Spain.
  106. How do the levels of urbanization and raw materials of Mediterranean Europe compared to those of the north?
    Urbanization lags considerably, reflecting agricultural bases of the pre-industrial era and higher population growth rates. Raw materials are lacking and must be imported from the European core.
  107. Which country is Mediterranean Europe's most populous and best connected to the European core?
  108. Which vital subregion of Italy contains nearly half its population and today functions as its economic core?
    The Po River Basin of the north, which focuses on Lombardy, contains the largest Italian city (Milan) and also belongs to Europe's core area.
  109. What is meant by the term Mezzogiorno?
    This is the name for Italy's poverty-stricken and stagnant agricultural south (southeast of the Ancona Line).
  110. Which countries are located on the Iberian Peninsula?
    Spain and Portugal
  111. Where is Spain's major manufacturing zone located?
    In Catalonia, in the northeast of the country.
  112. How has EU membership affected Greece economically?
    It's economy is booming, and Greece is currently described as a locomotive for the Balkans. The country continues to face challenges in the post-2005 period.
  113. How does the northern area of Cyprus differ from its southern counterpart?
    The Turkish proclaimed Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is north of the UN "Green Line," contains about 40 percent of Cyprus' territory, and has about 100,000 inhabitants. The south has 60 percent of the territory, about 900,000 inhabitants, and a more prosperous economy with strong links to Europe.
  114. What is meant by the term balkanization? Why is this region so often called a shatter belt?
    The fragmentation of a region into smaller, often hostile political unites. Because of the numerous cultures that have collided here, the resultant shattering of various cultural and political units has produced an especially fragmented ethnic map.
  115. What is ethnic cleansing?
    The forcible removal of entire populations from their homelands by a stronger power determined to take their territory.
  116. Which countries constitute Eastern Europe?
    Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, new Yugoslavia, Bosnia, Croatia, Macedonia, Slonevia, Montenegro, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, and five former Soviet Republics (Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Moldova, and Ukraine)
  117. Where is Poland's leading industrial area located?
    Silesia is located in southwestern Poland, anchored by the cities of Krakow, Katowice, and Wroclaw
  118. What is the significance of Bohemia?
    The Czech Republic's core area; the zone around Prague is one of the region's leading manufacturers and a cosmopolitan center with a rich history.
  119. Why was Ukraine an economic-geographic cornerstone of the former Soviet Union?
    Ukraine is rich in industrial raw materials and contained the most productive environment for large-scale agriculture in the U.S.S.R.; Ukrainian mineral and energy deposits gave rise to the Donbas, until the 1990s one of Eurasia's leading regions of heavy manufacturing.
  120. How was former Yugoslavia organized when under communist rule?
    It was a federation divided up into six internal "republics," based on the Soviet model, each dominated (except Bosnia) by major ethnic group.
  121. Name the six independent entities of former Yugoslavia.
    Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia, Croatia, Macedonia, and Slovenia.
  122. Why was Slovenia the most successful state to secede from former Yugoslavia?
    It is the most remote area from the Serb domain; it is compact and ethnically homogeneous, and had a well developed economy.
  123. Where is most of Russia's population concentrated?
    In "European" Russia, west of the Ural mountains
  124. What does the field of climatology study?
    The distribution of climatic conditions over the Earth's surface and the processes that shape this spatial arrangement.
  125. Why is farming difficult in Russia?
    Even in its most favorable areas, temperature extremes, variable and undependable rainfall, and short growing seasons make agriculture a challenge for Russians.
  126. Where is the Russian Plain located?
    Across all of the "European" Russia as far east as the Urals; the Moscow Basin lies at its heart.
  127. What are the two chief rivers of the West Siberian Plain, the world's largest lowland?
    The Ob and the Irtysh.
  128. What is the major inland water body of the Eastern Highlands? (Russia)
    Lake Baykal, the world's deepest.
  129. Where was the first Slavic state located?
    In present day Ukraine, northwest of the Black Sea.
  130. When did Moscow emerge as the center of the Russian state?
    In the 16th century, when Czar Ivan the Terrible began to expel the Tatar conquerors.
  131. How far did the Russians penetrate into North America?
    They reached across Alaska, the western coast of Canada, and as far south as San Francisco Bay.
  132. What were the contributions of Czar Peter the Great?
    Peter opened up the Baltic frontier, built the capital of St. Petersburg, and developed ties with Europe.
  133. When was the Soviet Union formed?
    Between 1917 and 1924, as a result of the Bolshevik Revolution that overthrew the czarist monarchy.
  134. What was the overall result of past Soviet attempts at population planning?
    Minority peoples were generally moved eastward and replaced with Russians. This was termed Russification.
  135. What were the two main objectives of Soviet economic planners?
    To speed industrialization and collective agriculture. Soviet planners hoped that efficient farming would free up the labor force necessary for industry.
  136. When did the Soviet Union collapse?
  137. What key social challenge does Russia face?
    Mistrust between Moscow and subordinate areas, including increasing social disharmony.
  138. List the regions of the Russian realm.
    The Russian Core and its peripheries west of the Urals, Southern Peripheries, the Eastern Frontier, Siberia, and the Far East.
  139. Where is the Russian Core located?
    Broadly speaking, the area lying between Russia's western border and the Ural Mountains on the east.
  140. Where is the Central Industrial Region?
    All definitions are subject to debate, but many geographers define it as the area centering on Moscow, and radiating from it in all directions for about 250 miles.
  141. What are Russia's two largest cities?
    Moscow is by far the largest, with 10.9 million inhabitants; St. Petersburg (former Leningrad) is the second largest city, with 5.3 million.
  142. Which economic sectors have been the focus of development in the Volga (Povolzhye) region since WWII?
    Great reserves of petroleum and natural gas have been discovered; transportation has also been expanded- the Volga-Don Canal now directly connects the Volga waterway to the Black Sea.
  143. Where is Transcaucasia?
    It lies between the Black Sea to the west and the Caspian Sea to the east.
  144. Why is Transcaucasia called the Balkans of Asia?
    It is a jigsaw of languages, regions, and ethnic groups- an historical battleground for Christians and Muslims, Russians and Turks, Armenians and Persians.
  145. What are the three political entities of Transcaucasia?
    Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, all former S.S.R.s of the Soviet Union.
  146. Where is Armenia's exclave?
    Nagorno-Karabakh, inside neighboring Muslim Azerbaijan.
  147. Name the three minority-based autonomous entities in Georgia.
    Abkhazian Autonomous Republic, Ajarian Autonomous Republic, and South Ossetian Autonomous Region.
  148. Which centrifugal forces have come to the forefront since the fall of the U.S.S.R.?
    Factional fighting destroyed Georgia's first elected government in 1991; conflict continues in South Ossetia as well as in Abkhazia.
  149. What are the republic's ties to its southern neighbor, Iran?
    The Shi'ite Muslim Azeris of Azerbaijan have much in common with their ethnic brethren in Northern Iran; irredentism may be a threat in the future.
  150. What future political problems does Azerbaijan face?
    Fighting over Nagorno-Karabakh with the Armenians, and possibilities of Iranian and Turkish involvement in the dispute.
  151. What are some major geographic differences between the U.S. and Canada?
    The United States has a much bigger population, but a smaller area; the U.S. population is widely dispersed, whereas the Canadian people are highly concentrated along their southern border.
  152. What is a physiographic province?
    A physically-uniform region in terms of topography, climate, vegetation, soils, and other environmental variables.
  153. What is the rain shadow effect?
    The relative dryness in areas downwind of mountain ranges, caused by orographic precipitation, wherein moist air masses are forced to deposit most of their water content in the highlands.
  154. What are Arid and Humid America?
    The dry and moist halves of the conterminous U.S., roughly divided by the transition zone along the 20-inch isohyet
  155. What are the broadest vegetation divisions in the U.S. environment?
    Arid America contains grassland vegetation; Humid America contains forest vegetation.
  156. Name the five Great Lakes and their outlet to the sea.
    Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, Ontario; the St. Lawrence River
  157. Name the major tributaries of the Mississippi-Missouri river network.
    The Ohio, Tennessee, and Arkansas rivers.
  158. When and how did the Native Americans most likely arrive in North America?
    Over 13,000 years ago, by way of Alaska and most likely the Pacific.
  159. How did the arrival of Europeans in North America in the 18th century affect Native Americans?
    The Europeans ruthlessly drove the Native Americans westward from the Atlantic and Gulf coats. After 50 years of war, what remained of Native American populations retained only 4% of U.S. Territory in the form of reservations.
  160. What is currently the most significant internal migration trend in the United States?
    The persistent drift of people and livelihood towards the South and West (the "Sunbelt").
  161. What were the three culture hearths in the United States?
    The northern colony of New England, the Middle Atlantic area, and the southern Chesapeake Bay Colony.
  162. When did the Industrial Revolution occur in the United States?
    It began in the 1870s, and within 50 years America was the leading industrial power in the world.
  163. What is the core area of the realm, and what are the four corners of the rectangular boundary that encloses this region?
    The American Manufacturing Belt, corner by the cities of St. Louis, Milwaukee, Boston, and Baltimore.
  164. What is the economic heartland of this core region?
    The Atlantic Seaboard Megalopolis (its Canadian equivalent is Main Street, stretching from Quebec City southward to Windsor).
  165. What is meant by the terms outer city, edge city, and the urban realms model?
    The newly urbanized suburban ring, now coequal to the central city that spawned it; suburban down downtowns anchor the outer ring of the multi-centered metropolis; the urban realms generalization view today's metropolis as consisting of several self-sufficient sectors, each organized around its own downtown.
  166. What is a dialect?
    A local variation in a language spoken across a large area.
  167. What is the emerging mosaic culture?
    The ongoing fragmentation of American society into a plethora of narrowly-defined communities, not only along income, racial, and ethnic lines, but also according to age and lifestyle.
  168. Identify the following economic activites:
    (1) primary
    (2) secondary
    (3) tertiary
    (4) quaternary
    (5) quinary
    • (1) The extractive sector, especially mining and agriculture
    • (2) manufacturing
    • (3) services sector
    • (4) information sector
    • (5) managerial decision-making in large organizations
  169. Name the three fossil fuels and their three leading North American source areas.
    • Coal-Appalachia, the northern Great Plains, Midcontinent
    • Petroleum (oil)- Gulf Coast, Midcontinent, and Alaska
    • Natural Gas- Gulf Coast, Midcontinent, and Appalachia
  170. Describe the application of the von Thunen Model to the explanation of the spatial structure of U.S. Agriculture.
    Like modern Europe, the model fits at the macro-scale, with agricultural regions of decreasing intensity concentrically arranged with increasing distance from the central "supercity"- the northeastern Megalopolis.
  171. What are economies of scale?
    In industrial location, the savings that accrue from large-scale production wherein the cost of manufacturing a single item decreases as the level of the operation enlarges.
  172. Where has the industrial revitalization effort been centered in the U.S.?
    Much of the activity to create high-tech "factories of the future" has been in the Midwest portion of the Manufacturing Belt.
  173. What are the growth industries in the postindustrial society of the U.S.?
    High-technology, white-collar, office-based activites
  174. What are the location factors that attract today's pacesetting "high-tech" companies?
    A major university, high-skilled labor, close proximity to a cosmopolitan, urban area, abundant venture capital, an economic climate that supports risk-taking, a locally based network of global business linkages, and a high amenity environment with good housing, pleasant weather, and recreational opportunities.
  175. What is a technopole?
    A planned techno-industrial complex (like California's Silicon Valley) that innovates, promotes, and manufactures the products of the postindustrial economy.
  176. Name Canada's Atlantic Provinces.
    Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, and Newfoundland
  177. Which two Canadian provinces contain the largest populations?
    Ontario and Quebec
  178. When did Canada become a federation?
    In 1987, under the British North America Act.
  179. How has the separatist movement fared in Quebec since the 1970s?
    English domination of Quebec's culture has been eliminated; a 1980 referendum rejected secession from Canada, but the idea was revived and a 1995 referendum almost resulted in the approval of secession. Movement is now declining.
  180. What problems afflict Canada's industrial areas?
    Postindustrialism has caused massive underemployment in the manufacturing sector because new high-tech industries are not especially labor intensive.
  181. What percentage of Canada's total workforce is employed in the tertiary and quaternary economic sectors?
    More than 70 percent.
  182. What is the North American Core?
    The Manufacturing Belt, now facing problems in keeping abreast of the realm-wide transition from industrial to postindustrial age.
  183. What problems do northern New England and Atlantic Canada share?
    Both are generally rural, possess difficult environments, and were historically bypassed in favor of more dynamic and fertile inland areas; although agriculture and fishing are no longer growth industries, tourism presents an opportunity in this scenic region.
  184. Where is the heart of Francophone Canada?
    Quebec, where over 85 percent of the people are French Canadian.
  185. Where are the South's persistent economic problems?
    Uneven development has favored certain areas, left others untouched by recent progress much growth has occurred at the edges of the region; and Southern central cities increasingly face the problems of their Northern counterparts while their suburbs thrive.
  186. What are the tricultural influences evident in the Southwest?
    The growing Anglo influence, the persistently Hispanic flavor of local cultures, and the sporadic Native American presence.
  187. Where is the hottest growth area of the Western Frontier?
    The fastest-growing metropolis in the U.S. is the Las Vegas Valley, with its boom triggered by Las Vegas' recreation industry, and economic development fueled by the influx of high-tech and professional service firms.
  188. What does the term Pacific Hinge refer to?
    The west-coast region that forms an interface between North America and the Pacific Rim; it is the North American gateway to opportunities blossoming on the distant shores of the Pacific Basin.