Radl 70 Late Effects of Radiation
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What are some of the long term effects of radiation (one year long)?
- malignant disease
- local tissue damage (sunburn)
- life-span shortening
- genetic damage
- potential effects to fetus
Is necrosis long term or short term?
long term effect
is skin erythema a short term or long term effect?
when and where did the three mile island incident occur?
when and where did chernobyl occur?
what was released into the atmosphere during the three mile island incident?
- Appx. 10 MCi of xenon 133
- Appx. 15 MCi of iodine 131
what was released in the air during the chernobyl accident?
- tons of uranium dioxide
- cesuium 137
- iodine 131
when was the first case of skin cancer due to radiation exposure?
when was the first case of radiation induced leukemia?
What happen when radium is ingested? for ex. radium dial painters
- radium deposited in bones
- higher chance of osteogenic sarcoma and osteoporosis
- alpha and beta particles emitted
how is cesium ingested in the body as?
- deposited in the muscles
what kind of cancer does iodine cause?
whats the half life of iodine 131?
whats the half life of cesium 137?
what type of dose response relationship does thyroid cancer have?
linear, nonthreshold dose
what kind of cancer(s) do atomic bomb survivors have?
what kind of cancer(s) do marshall islanders have?
some thyroid cancer
what kind of cancer(s) do radium dial painters have?
what kind of cancer(s) did early radiologists have?
what kind of cancer(s) do people that undergo multiple chest fluoroscopy?
what kind of cancer(s) do infants with enlarged thymus get?
what kind of cancer(s) do people who get thorotrast treatments?
what kind of cancer(s) do babies in utero that get exposed get?
what kind of cancer(s) do people who get iodine 131 therapy for thyroid get?
what kind of cancer(s) do uranium miners get?
True or false: a single exposure can be enough to elevate cancer incidence several years later?
True or false: there are radiounique cancers?
- there is no radiounique cancer
True or false: almost all cancers are associated with radiation?
True or false: breast, bone marrow, and thyroid are not sensitive to radiation?
- they are especially sensitive
what is the most prominent radiogenic tumor?
what is the latent period of solid tumors?
what is leukemia's latent period?
True or false: age of irradiated individual is most important factor
True or false: percentage increase in cancer incidence/rad varies between organs and types of cancers
True or false: dose-effect curves are best assumed to be linear
what is the most radiosensitive layer of the skin?
- basal layer
- constantly regenerating
what are the late changes in skin?
- sunburn, aging
- change in pigmentation
what is the latent period of the eyes?
up to 30 years
what is the dose-response relationship of cataracts?
- threshold, non linear
- non linear because once the eyes are damaged or go blind theres no more damage that can occur
how many rads does it take to cause cataracts?
- about 200 rads
- all will develop at 1000 rads
what is the most radiosensitve organ of the digestive system?
how many rads does it take to cause atrophy, strictures, fibrosis and ulceration in the digestive system?
how many rads does it take to permenantly destroy the villi and cause ulceration, fibrosis and necrosis to the digestive system?
how many rads does it take to temporarily halt mitosis of developing bone cells?
how many rads does it take to permanently suppress mitosis?
- 1000 rads
- severe impact on both size and shape of bones in adulthood (when radiated as a child)
True or false: the urinary system is radioresistant?
how many rads does it take to cause renal failure?
what are some examples of cytogenetic damage?
- Increased spontaneous abortions or still birth
- Altered sex ratios
- Leukemia and other neoplasms
- Increased infant mortality
- Increased congenital effects
- Decreased life expectancy
- Dominant inherited diseases
- Dwarfism, Polydactly, Huntington’s Chorea
- Recessive inherited diseases
- Cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs, hemophilia, albinism
what is doubling dose?
- dose of radiation that will produce twice the frequency of genetic mutations than without radiation exposure
- mutations occur in nature with certain frequency
what are the 3 basic stages in development?
- fetal or growth stage
what is the preimplantation development stage?
conception to 10 days post conception
what is the organogenesis development stage?
- cells implanted in uterine wall
- cells begin differentiation into organs
what is the fetal or growth development stage?
- sixth week after conception
- growth rather than new development
what are the principle effects of radiation on embryo or fetus?
- embryonic or fetal death
- growth retardation
- congenital defects
- cancer induction
what is the 10-25 rule?
- doses of less than 10 rad = no indication to terminate a pregnancy
- doses between 10 and 25 rad = gray area
- doses above 25 = termination should be considered
what is the genetically significant dose?
- the dose equivalent to the reproductive organs that would bring about genetic injury to the population if recieved by the total population
- the estimated GSD for the US is about 20 mrem
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