Radl 70 Late Effects of Radiation

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  1. What are some of the long term effects of radiation (one year long)?
    • malignant disease
    • local tissue damage (sunburn)
    • life-span shortening
    • genetic damage
    • potential effects to fetus
  2. Is necrosis long term or short term?
    long term effect
  3. is skin erythema a short term or long term effect?
    short term
  4. when and where did the three mile island incident occur?
    U.S. 1979
  5. when and where did chernobyl occur?
    USSR 1986
  6. what was released into the atmosphere during the three mile island incident?
    • Appx. 10 MCi of xenon 133
    • Appx. 15 MCi of iodine 131
  7. what was released in the air during the chernobyl accident?
    • tons of uranium dioxide
    • cesuium 137
    • iodine 131
  8. when was the first case of skin cancer due to radiation exposure?
  9. when was the first case of radiation induced leukemia?
  10. What happen when radium is ingested? for ex. radium dial painters
    • radium deposited in bones
    • higher chance of osteogenic sarcoma and osteoporosis
    • alpha and beta particles emitted
  11. how is cesium ingested in the body as?
    • potassium
    • deposited in the muscles
  12. what kind of cancer does iodine cause?
    thyroid cancer
  13. whats the half life of iodine 131?
    8 days
  14. whats the half life of cesium 137?
    10-100 days
  15. what type of dose response relationship does thyroid cancer have?
    linear, nonthreshold dose
  16. what kind of cancer(s) do atomic bomb survivors have?
    • leukemia
    • thyroid
    • breast
  17. what kind of cancer(s) do marshall islanders have?
    some thyroid cancer
  18. what kind of cancer(s) do radium dial painters have?
    bone cancer
  19. what kind of cancer(s) did early radiologists have?
    • leukemia
    • skin cancer
  20. what kind of cancer(s) do people that undergo multiple chest fluoroscopy?
    breast cancer
  21. what kind of cancer(s) do infants with enlarged thymus get?
    thyroid cancer
  22. what kind of cancer(s) do people who get thorotrast treatments?
    • leukemia
    • liver cancer
  23. what kind of cancer(s) do babies in utero that get exposed get?
  24. what kind of cancer(s) do people who get iodine 131 therapy for thyroid get?
    some leukemi
  25. what kind of cancer(s) do uranium miners get?
    lung cancer
  26. True or false: a single exposure can be enough to elevate cancer incidence several years later?
  27. True or false: there are radiounique cancers?
    • false
    • there is no radiounique cancer
  28. True or false: almost all cancers are associated with radiation?
  29. True or false: breast, bone marrow, and thyroid are not sensitive to radiation?
    • false
    • they are especially sensitive
  30. what is the most prominent radiogenic tumor?
  31. what is the latent period of solid tumors?
    10 years
  32. what is leukemia's latent period?
    5-7 years
  33. True or false: age of irradiated individual is most important factor
  34. True or false: percentage increase in cancer incidence/rad varies between organs and types of cancers
  35. True or false: dose-effect curves are best assumed to be linear
  36. what is the most radiosensitive layer of the skin?
    • basal layer
    • constantly regenerating
  37. what are the late changes in skin?
    • sunburn, aging
    • atrophy
    • fibrosis
    • change in pigmentation
    • ulceration
    • necrosis
  38. what is the latent period of the eyes?
    up to 30 years
  39. what is the dose-response relationship of cataracts?
    • threshold, non linear
    • non linear because once the eyes are damaged or go blind theres no more damage that can occur
  40. how many rads does it take to cause cataracts?
    • about 200 rads
    • all will develop at 1000 rads
  41. what is the most radiosensitve organ of the digestive system?
    small bowel
  42. how many rads does it take to cause atrophy, strictures, fibrosis and ulceration in the digestive system?
    500 rads
  43. how many rads does it take to permenantly destroy the villi and cause ulceration, fibrosis and necrosis to the digestive system?
    1000 rads
  44. how many rads does it take to temporarily halt mitosis of developing bone cells?
    100 rads
  45. how many rads does it take to permanently suppress mitosis?
    • 1000 rads
    • severe impact on both size and shape of bones in adulthood (when radiated as a child)
  46. True or false: the urinary system is radioresistant?
  47. how many rads does it take to cause renal failure?
    2500 rads
  48. what are some examples of cytogenetic damage?
    • Increased spontaneous abortions or still birth
    • Altered sex ratios
    • Leukemia and other neoplasms
    • Increased infant mortality
    • Increased congenital effects
    • Decreased life expectancy
    • Dominant inherited diseases
    • Dwarfism, Polydactly, Huntington’s Chorea
    • Recessive inherited diseases
    • Cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs, hemophilia, albinism
  49. what is doubling dose?
    • dose of radiation that will produce twice the frequency of genetic mutations than without radiation exposure
    • mutations occur in nature with certain frequency
  50. what are the 3 basic stages in development?
    • preimplantation
    • organogenesis
    • fetal or growth stage
  51. what is the preimplantation development stage?
    conception to 10 days post conception
  52. what is the organogenesis development stage?
    • cells implanted in uterine wall
    • cells begin differentiation into organs
  53. what is the fetal or growth development stage?
    • sixth week after conception
    • growth rather than new development
  54. what are the principle effects of radiation on embryo or fetus?
    • embryonic or fetal death
    • malformations
    • growth retardation
    • congenital defects
    • cancer induction
  55. what is the 10-25 rule?
    • doses of less than 10 rad = no indication to terminate a pregnancy
    • doses between 10 and 25 rad = gray area
    • doses above 25 = termination should be considered
  56. what is the genetically significant dose?
    • the dose equivalent to the reproductive organs that would bring about genetic injury to the population if recieved by the total population
    • the estimated GSD for the US is about 20 mrem
Card Set:
Radl 70 Late Effects of Radiation
2012-04-28 01:06:06
cancer genetic mutations

Long term effects of radiation
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