Unit 3

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Unit 3
2012-04-27 17:54:34

Unit 3
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  1. What are common clinical manifestations of the respiatory system
    • dyspnea
    • cough
    • wheezing
    • stridor
  2. What is stridor
    constriction of airway
  3. What is neumactis
    coughing up blood
  4. What is the remaining volume of air that is about 1200 mL that is always in the lungs b/c it is never exhaled
    Residual volume
  5. What is the volume of air that moves in and out with each breath and how much is it
    Tidal volume, 500mL
  6. What is the extra air inhaled
    inspiratory reserve voume
  7. what is the extra air exhaled
    expiratory reserve volume
  8. what is the total lung capacity
    residual volume, tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, and expiratory reserve volume all together
  9. what is the vital capacity
    tidal volume, reserve volume and expiratory reserve volume (amount person can ventilate)
  10. What is the functional reserve capacity
    expiratory reserve and residual volume
  11. what is the inspiratory capacity
    tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume
  12. What is hyperventilation
    state of ventilation in excess of that required to eliminate the CO2 produced by cellular metabolism. breathing very fast
  13. what causes hyperventilation
    anxiety, infections, drugs, acid/base imbalance, shock, PE
  14. How do you treat hyperventilation
    treat underlying cause, bring person to normal O2 levels
  15. What is hypoventilation
    occurs when alveolar ventilation is inadequate to meet the body's O2 demand or to eliminate sufficient CO2. As alveolar ventilation decreases the body retains CO2. Alveolar aren't getting enough O2. Actelasis happens b/c of fluid build-up
  16. What are s/s of hypoventilation
    headache, dizziness, convulsions, disorientation, lethargy (big one)
  17. What is hypoxia
    inadequate O2 at the cellular level. Results from a deficiency in O2 delievery or O2 utilization at the cell level. If untreated it produces cardiac dysrhythmias
  18. what cauese hypoxia
    • decreased hemoglobin level and lowered O2 carrying capacity of the blood
    • diminished concentration of inspired O2 which occurs at high alititude
    • inability of the tissues to extract O2 from the blood (cyanind poisoning)
    • decreased diffusion of O2 from the alveoli to the blood as in pneumonia
    • poor tissue perfusion with oxygenated blood as with shock
    • impaired ventilation (rib fractures)
  19. what are s/s of hypoxia
    apprehension, restlessness, inability to concentrate, LOC, dizziness, unable to lie down, increased pulse and increased depth and rate of resp
  20. how do you treat hypoxia
    give O2
  21. What is pursed lip breathing
    involves deep inspiration and prolonged expiration through pursed lips to prevent alveolar collapse.
  22. what is forced spirometry
    This procedure measures Forced Vital Capacity which requires a maximal inhalation and maximal, forced exhalation. FVC + Residual Volume (not measure here) is = Total Lung Volume. FEV 1.0 is the amount expired in one second. The ratio of FEV 1.0 to FVC is clinically relevant. A ratio of 80% or greater is considered normal. Less than 80% could indicate conditions such as asthma or COPD (emphysema).
  23. What is a body plethysmography test
    method to measure the exact amt of air in the thorax. Have client sit in airtight box and breathe through a flow-measuring device. measures airway resistance of lungs
  24. what does PaO2 reflect
    efficiency of gas exchange
  25. what does PaCO2 reflect
    alveolar ventilation
  26. what is a CT
    provides more sophisticated tomography than is possible with regular x-ray. identifies periperhal or mediastinal disorders. gives cross-sectional view of the chest to differentiate among pathologic conditions. Dx PE, pulmonary fibrosis
  27. what is MRI
    employs magnetic fields rather than radiation to create images of the body structures. More definitive than CT b/c it creates more detailed images of anatomic structures