1) Hedonistic, self-focused orientation. The individual concerned with his or her own interest rather than with moral considerations
2) needs-based orientation. The individual expesses concern for the physical, material, and psychological needs of others even when those needs conflict with his or her own
3) approval and/or stereotyped orientation. The individual justifies engaging or not engaging or not engaging in prosocial behavior on the basis of others' approval or acceptance
- 4a) self-reflective empathic orientation. The individual's judgements include evidence of self-reflective sympathetic responding or role taking
- 4b) Transitional level. The individual's justifications for helping or not helping involve internalized values, norms, duties, or responsibilites.
5) Strongly intervalized stage. The individual's justifications for helping or not helping are based on internalized values, norms, or responsibilities; the desire to maintain individual and societal contractual obligations or imporove the condition of society; and the belief in the rights, dignity, and equality of all individuals