D.P. Chp 14

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D.P. Chp 14
2012-04-30 23:53:54

Moral Development
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  1. Moral Judgement
    • 1) the reasoning behind a behavior
    • 2) changes in moral reasoning = the basis of moral development
  2. 2 Contributors to Understanding of Moral Development
    • 1) Jean Piaget
    • 2) Lawrence Kohlberg

    -both used the cognitive developmental approach
  3. Piaget's Theory of Moral Judgment
    • - believed in 2 basic principles relating to moral education: 1) children develop moral ideas in stages
    • 2) children create their own conceptions of the world
    • - a child's view of morality was derived from their own experiences far more so than from what an adult told them
    • (this isn't exactly what the slides say so clarify with study guide)

    • believed there was a rigid acceptance of the dictates and rules of authorities
    • -moral rules are a product of social interaction and were modifiable
  4. 3 'Stages' in Piaget's Theory of Moral Judgement
    • 1) morality of constraint:
    • • occurs in children who haven't yet reached cognitive stage of concrete operations
    • - unchangeable rules & duties
    • - what determines whether an action is good or bad is the consequence of the action, not the motive behind it

    • 2) transition period:
    • • occurs in children btwn 7/8 to 10 y/o
    • - increased peer interaction
    • - rules can be constructed by the group
    • - more autonomous in their thinking about moral issues

    • 3) autonomous morality:
    • • occurs at 11 or 12; moral relativism emerges
    • - rules can be changed if a group agrees to do so
    • focus on:
    • - fairness & equality; individuals' motives
  5. Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Judgment
    • presented children with hypothetical moral dilemmas and then questioned them about the issues involved in their moral judgments
  6. Kohlberg's (6) Stages of Moral Judgment Divided into 3 Levels
    • 1) Preconventional Level: self-centered, focused on getting rewards & avoiding punishment
    • - stage 1: punishment & obedience orientation
    • -stage 2: intrumental & exchange orientation

    • 2) Conventional: centered on social relationships
    • - stage 3: 'good girl, nice boy' orientation
    • - stage 4: 'law and order' orientation

    • 3) Postconventional: involved with ideals, focusing on moral principles
    • - stage 5: social contract/individual rights orientation
    • - stage 6: universal ethical principles
  7. 1) Preconventional Level
    • • Stage 1: punishment and obedience orientation
    • - obedience to authorities & "conscience” b/c of a fear of punishment
    • - child doesn't consider others' interests

    • • Stage 2: instrumental & exchange orientation
    • - what's right = what's in one's own best interest (or involves equal exchange between people; tit-for-tat exchange of benefits)
  8. 2) Conventional Level
    • • Stage 3: 'good girl, nice boy' orientation
    • - a time of mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, & interpersonal conformity
    • - good behavior is expected by people who are close to the person
    • - being 'good' is important in itself

    • • Stage 4: 'law and Order' orientation
    • - right behavior is deemed by duties, laws, and society of one's group
    • - the individual is motivated to keep the social system going
  9. 3) Postconventional Level
    • • Stage 5: social contract/individual rights orientation
    • - uphold rules that are in the best interest of the group, are impartial, or agreed upon by group
    • - some values and rights, such as life and liberty, are universally right and must be upheld in any society, regardless of majority opinion

    • • Stage 6: universal ethical principles
    • - commitment to self-chosen ethical principles that reflect universal principles of justice (ex: equality of human rights)
    • - individual acts in accordance with universal principles over a law that violates these principles
  10. Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Judgment
    • • people all over the world go though these stages in the same order, but differ with regard to the final stage they attain
    • • levels of cognitive development, especially individuals' skills in perspective taking, determined their progress through the stages
  11. Critique of Kohlberg's Theory
    • • presents a biased, intellectualized Western conception of morality
    • • discontinuous moral reasoning development?
    • • the most hotly debated issue, however, involves sex differences
    • • men – reason?, women – caring?
  12. Prosocial Moral Judgment
    • voluntary behavior intended to benefit another
  13. • Eisenberg’s stories: characters must choose between helping someone and meeting their own needs
    – 5 stages of prosocial moral reasoning similar to Kohlberg's stages
  14. Eisenberg’s Stages of Prosocial Behavior
    1) Hedonistic, self-focused orientation. The individual concerned with his or her own interest rather than with moral considerations

    2) needs-based orientation. The individual expesses concern for the physical, material, and psychological needs of others even when those needs conflict with his or her own

    3) approval and/or stereotyped orientation. The individual justifies engaging or not engaging or not engaging in prosocial behavior on the basis of others' approval or acceptance

    • 4a) self-reflective empathic orientation. The individual's judgements include evidence of self-reflective sympathetic responding or role taking
    • 4b) Transitional level. The individual's justifications for helping or not helping involve internalized values, norms, duties, or responsibilites.

    5) Strongly intervalized stage. The individual's justifications for helping or not helping are based on internalized values, norms, or responsibilities; the desire to maintain individual and societal contractual obligations or imporove the condition of society; and the belief in the rights, dignity, and equality of all individuals
  15. Domains of Social Judgment
    • • moral judgments: right/wrong, fairness & justice
    • • social conventional judgments: customs or regulations intended to secure social coordination & social organization
    • • personal judgments: individual preferences are the main consideration
  16. Cultural & Socioeconomic Differences
    • cultural differences in whether a given behavior is viewed as having moral implications

    • SES differences

    – in the US & Brazil, children of lower-income families are less likely than middle-class children to differentiate between moral and social convention judgments
  17. conscience
    • • an internal regulatory mechanism –conform to standards
    • • ex. for a young child, the conscience is internalized parental standards
  18. Things That Affect the Development of Conscience
    • – 2 y/o show an appreciation for moral standards
    • – rational explanations to discipline rather than harshness
    • – whether a child is securely attached
    • – temperament
  19. Altruistic Prosocial Behavior
    • • adults desire altruistic motives
    • • initially empathy or sympathy for others and, at later ages, the desire to act in ways consistent with one's own conscience and moral principles
  20. Altruistic Prosocial Behavior
    • • the origins of altruistic prosocial behavior are rooted in
    • the capacity to feel empathy and sympathy
    • empathy: the capacity to recognize & share feelings experienced by another human
    • sympathy: the feeling of concern for another person (or animal) in reaction to the other's emotional state or condition
  21. Altruistic Prosocial Behavior
    • – infants respond to others' distress, but may not differentiate between others' emotional reactions and their own
    • – ~2 y/o: differentiate between another's emotional distress & their own; their responses still might be egocentric
    • – ~2-3 y/o: the frequency & variety of young children's prosocial behaviors increase
  22. individual differences in prosocial behavior come from:
    genetic factors & how a family experiences socialization

    -ex: parents who are constructive and supportive in their parenting tend to have children who are high in prosocial behavior & sympathy
  23. Cultural Contributions to Prosocial-ness
    • • in more prosocial cultures, children often live in extended families
    • • cultures in which fathers were closely involved with their families produce children w/ lower rates of assaulting and reprimanding others
  24. Development of Aggression/Antisocial Behaviors
    • •  aggression: harming or injuring others
    • -different types, instrumental or relational aggression
  25. aggression can emerge at around:
    • 18 months; tends to increase until 2 y/o, & then it decreases in frequency
    • • during preschool & elementary school: there's a marked decrease in aggression
    • - most likely results from an increased ability to: resolve conflict, control emotions, etc.
  26. Development (*lessening) of Aggression
    • •  during adolescence: for most teenagers, its frequency
    • decreases
    • •  Serious acts of violance
    • - at 17 y/o: 29% of males & 12% of females commit at least 1 serious violent offense
  27. Self-reported violence for males and females at different ages:
  28. aggressive & antisocial behavior is:
    relatively consistent

    •  children who are aggressive and prone to conduct problems in middle childhood tend to be aggressive & delinquent in adolescence

    • •  neurological deficits potentially underlie attentional deficits & hyperactivity
    • –  also associated with a range of family risk factors
  29. Consistency of Aggressive & Antisocial Behavior (??????)
    • - adolescence: being a member of an ethnic minority group, interacting with deviate peer groups
    • -  no history of aggression or antisocial behavior before 11 y/o
    • -  typically stop engaging in antisocial behavior later in adolescence or adulthood
  30. Behavioral Disorders
    - oppositional defiant disorder (ODD): angry, defiant behavior that is age inappropriate and persistent

    - conduct disorder (CD): antisocial & aggressive behaviors that inflict pain on others

    • -  around 3% of U.S. youth have ODD
    • - around 6-16% of males and 2-9% of females have CD
    • - 6 y/o is generally when it starts
    • - genetics, environmental influences, parental behavior, & peer influences contribute (4 things)
  31. Characteristics of Antisocial Children/Adolescents
    • •  difficult temperament from a very early age
    • •  impulsivity, problems with attention, and callousness in childhood
    • •  aggressive children differ from nonaggressive children in their social cognition
  32. –  many have an 'aggressive' lens: they 1) attribute hostile motives to others 2) have hostile goals in social situations & 3) generate fewer + more aggressive reasons than do nonaggressive children when faced with negative social
    • situations
    • – such children  evaluate aggressive responses more favorably and prosocial responses less favorably
  33. Origins of Aggression (5)
    • 1)  biological factors
    • - almost certainly contribute to individual differences in aggression
    • - their role is not very clear
    • - they are neither necessary nor sufficient to cause aggressive behavior in most children

    • 2) poor parenting
    • - many children whose parents often use hard (nonabusive) physical punishment are prone to problem
    • behaviors when young & aggression later (especially if parents are generally cold & punitive)
    • - relation between physical punishment & antisocial behavior does not hold in groups in which physical but non-abusive punishment & controlling parental behavior are seen as responsible when coupled with parental support and normal demands for compliance

    • 3)  inconsistent parenting
    • - inconsistent administration of discipline & following through on punishments = more likely to have children who are aggressive & delinquent
    • -  children are unintentionally reinforced by parents when they give into children's tempers/demands

    • 4) abusive punishment
    • - associated w/ development of antisocial tendencies

    • 5) verbal & physical violence between parents
    • - children exposed to this tend to be more antisocial & aggressive than other children
    • -  low SES is also a risk factor for antisocial behavior in children

    • 6) antisocial friends
    • - beng part of an antisocial peer group
  34. oppositional defiant disorder
    this is characterized by angry-defiant behavior that is age-inappropriate and persistent

    -a child who persistently loses his or her temper in an age-inappropriate manner and who is spiteful and vindictive may be considered for diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder
  35. proactive aggression
    unemotional aggression aimed at fulfilling a need or desire

    -children prone to this tend to anticipate relatively positive social consequences to their aggression
  36. prosocial behavior
    voluntary behavior intended to benefit another

    -examples of this include helping, sharing, & comforting others
  37. aggression
    behavior aimed a hurting or injuring others

    - this evolves from being almost entirely physical in the early years to involving more verbal forms as children develop
  38. moral judgements
    decisions that involve issues of right & wrong, fairness and justice

    -even young children understand that transgressions in moral judgements are wrong even if an adult says they are acceptable
  39. altruistic motives
    reasons for which individuals help others, including empathy, sympathy, and the desire to act in ways that are consistent with one's conscience and moral standards

    -parents want children to help others as a result of altruistic motives rather than as a result of a desire to avoid getting in trouble with parents
  40. social conventional judgements
    decisions that involve customs or regulations intended to ensure social coordination and social organization

    -examples of these include decisions about manners and modes of dress in particular contexts
  41. conduct disorder
    this involves severe antisocial and aggressive behaviors that inflict pain or involve the destruction of property

    -a child who persistently is cruel to animals and steals may be considered for a diagnosis of conduct disorder
  42. personal judgements
    decisions in which individual preferences are the main consideration

    -adolescents and parents often argue over the issue of whether parents should have any control over decisions of personal judgement
  43. instrumental aggression
    aggression motivated by the desire to obtain a concrete goal

    - young children's aggression is generally instrumental, as when they push a child so that they can plya with a toy they desire
  44. reactive aggression
    emotionally driven, antagonistic aggression

    - children prone to reactive aggression are particularly likely to percieve others as possessing hostile motives
  45. conscience
    an internal regulatory mechanism that increases an individual's ability to conform with standards of behavior that are considered acceptable in his or her culture

    - this can promote prosocial behavior by causing a child to feel guilty when he or she engages in unkind behavior
  46. This aspect of Piaget's theory of moral reasoning has NOT been supported by empirical reasoning:
    the amount of time children spend with peers influences the maturity of their moral reasoning (hasn't been tested)
  47. Kohlberg thought that individuals at the LEAST advanced stage of moral reasoning believe that morally right behavior involves:
    obedience to authorities
  48. domains of social judgement in different cultures:
    people in different cultures vary as to which decisions are believed to fall into each category
  49. results of twin studies show that genetic factors make what type of contribution to concern for others and prosocial behavior:
    MODEST contribution
  50. BEST strategy for parents to encourage children to behave in a prosocial manner:
    point out the consequence of prosocial actions for others
  51. which of the following parenting practices is associated with increased prosocial behavior in children:
    encouraging children to SYMPATHIZE with others
  52. parents' use of abusive punishment is ASSOCIATED with children's antisocial behavior....
    REGARDLESS OF the group in question