Path I

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Path I
2012-04-28 14:33:02

Path I
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  1. What are some common causes of testicular hypoplasia? 3
    • Zinc Deficiency
    • Cytogenetic abnormalities (Klinefelter's syndrome)
    • Reduced availability of LH from pituitary gland
  2. What is an example of an animal with Klinefelter's syndrome?
    Tricolor male cats
  3. What is the most common disorder of sexual development in dogs and cats?
  4. In a bull and horse, which testicle is most likely to be retained?
  5. What type of cryptorchid testicle is most likely to have a Sertoli cell tumor?
  6. What type of cryptorchid testicle is most likely to have a Seminoma?
  7. What is the most common cause of infertility in the male?
    Testicular atrophy
  8. What can be used to differentiate testicular hypoplasia from testicular atrophy?
    The epididymis of the atrophied testicle would have formed properly
  9. What are some common causes of testicular hypoplasia? 7
    • Thermal
    • Infections
    • Trauma
    • Malnutrition, excess caloric intake
    • Hypovitaminosis A
    • Zinc deficiency
    • Vascular lesions
  10. How long may it take for testicular regeneration and normal fertility to return?
    3-6 months
  11. What is inflammation of the testis?
  12. What are the two main causes of primary orchitis outside the US? 2
    • Brucellosis (bulls, boars)
    • Mycobacteriosis
  13. Brucellosis usually occurs in...
    • Bulls
    • Boars
  14. What bacteria is known to cause a primary orchitis in rams?
    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
  15. What are some possible ways an organism can be spread to the testis, causing orchitis? 3
    • Hematogenous route (uncommon)
    • Extension from neighboring structures
    • Retrograde along genito-urinary tract
  16. In order of greatest-least, which tumors are most common in dogs?
    • Leydig
    • Seminoma
    • Sertoli
  17. What tumor is an orange-brown neoplasm & encapsulated?
    Leydig cell tumor (interstitial cell tumor)
  18. Leydig Cell Tumors usually occur in...
    • Dogs
    • Cats
    • Bulls
  19. Are leydig cell tumors usually benign or malignant?
  20. What tumor is a whitish-cream firm neoplasm with abundant fibrous stroma?
    Sertoli cell tumor
  21. What are some conditions associated with Sertoli cell tumors? 3
    • Feminization syndrome (alopecia, hyperpigmentation, gynecomastia, atrophy of testis)
    • Prostatic disease
    • Bone marrow suppression (thrombocytopenia)
  22. What neoplasm is often yellow-white to tan, often with pain?
  23. Seminomas occur most often in...
    • Young Stallions
    • Dogs (#2)
  24. What neoplasm is often benign & is composed of multiple tissues?
  25. Teratomas are most common in...
    Young horses and cryptorchid testicles
  26. What developmental abnormality results in testicular/epididymal enlargement and degeneration due to back pressure?
    Segmental aplasia of Wolffian duct
  27. Segmental aplasia of Wolffian duct occurs most often in...
  28. What is inflammation of the epididymis
  29. Epididymitis is most common in which species?
    • Ram
    • Dog
  30. What is dilation and tortuosity of the spermatic veins particularly pampiniform plexus and cremaster veins?
  31. What is inflammation of the spermatic cord?
  32. What often follows open castration?
  33. Funiculitis occurs most often in...
    • Pig
    • Horse
    • Bull
  34. What can lead to damage to scrotal skin such as necrosis (dry gangrene) and fibrosis which shortens the scrotum in the bull?
  35. What is a reflection of the peritoneum from the peritoneal cavity down into the scrotum?
    Tunica vaginalis
  36. What is accumulation of clear serous fluid in the tunica vaginalis?
  37. What is accumulation of lymphatic fluid in the tunica vaginalis?
  38. What is accumulation of blood in the tunica vaginalis?