Psych Test

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Psych Test
2012-04-27 19:22:09

psych test notes
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  1. Learning
    a long term change in behavior or capabilities due to experience
  2. Classical Conditioning
    • Also known as Pavlovian Conditioning
    • a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus
    • Developed by Ivan Pavlov
  3. Unconditioned Stimulus
    stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning
  4. Unconditioned Response
    unlearned reaction to the UCS that occurs without previoius conditioning
  5. Conditioned Stimulus
    previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response
  6. Conditioned Response
    learned reaction to a CS that occurs because of previous conditioning
  7. Acquisition in classical conditioning tends to be gradual
  8. Extinction
    gradual weakening and dissappearance of a conditional responce tendancy
  9. Stimulus Generalization
    an organism that has learned a response to a stimulus responds in the same way to a new stimuli that are similer to the original
  10. Operant Conditioning
    Form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences
  11. Schedules of Reinforcement
    determines which occurances of a specific response result in the presentation of a reinforcer
  12. Continuous Reinforcement
    every instance of a designated response is reinforced
  13. Intermittant
    occurs when a designated response is reinforced only some of the time
  14. Fixed Ratio
    the reinforcer is given after a fixed number of non reinforced responses
  15. Example of Fixed Ratio
    bonus for every 10th item sold
  16. Variable Ratio
    the reinforcer is given after a variable number of non reinforced responses
  17. Example of Variable Ratio
    casino slots
  18. Fixed Interval
    the reinforcer is given for the first response that occurs after a fixed time interval has elapsed
  19. Example of Fixed Interval
    checking a washing machine
  20. Variable Interval
    the reinforcer is given for the first response after a variable time interval has elapsed
  21. Example of Variable Interval
    dialing a number many times when the line is busy
  22. Phoneme
    smallest units in a language that can be distinguished
  23. Morpheme
    smallest units of meaning in a language
  24. Semantics
    area of language concerned with understanding the meaning of words and word combinations
  25. Syntax
    a system of rules that specify how words can be rearranged in a sentance
  26. When does the early production of language like sound start?
    3 months
  27. What is the name for the initial sounds that children make?
  28. Babbling stops at what age?
    18 months
  29. Fast Mapping
    the process by which children map a word onto an underlying concept after only one exposure
  30. What are some of the different developments that humans go through?
    • physical
    • emotional
    • social
    • cognitive
    • language
    • moral
  31. zygote
    one celled organism formed from the sperm and egg
  32. Teratogen
    things that can harm an unborn baby
  33. Germinal Period (Conception-2 Weeks)
    • fertilization
    • zygote
    • blastocyst
    • attaches to uterine wall
  34. Embryonic Period (2-8 Weeks)
    organogenisis occurs, which is the beginning development of organs
  35. Fetal Period (8-20 Weeks)
    lots of growth
  36. Temperment
    the characteristic mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity of a child
  37. Children are born with certain temperaments
  38. temperaments have an impact on..
  39. What stage of cognitive development happens at birth to 2 years?
  40. What stage of cognitive development happens at 2-6 years?
    pre operational
  41. what stage of cognitive development happens at 7-11 years?
    concrete optional
  42. what stage of cognitive development happens at age 12- adulthood?
    formal optional
  43. Sensorimotor
    • object permanence- objects exist even when out of view
    • emerges at about 8 months