AP Lang & Comp

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schuetts13
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AP Lang & Comp
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2012-04-29 18:50:38
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AP Lang Comp
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  1. Allegory
    Using character and/or story elements symbolically to represent an abstraction in addition to the litera lmeaning
  2. Alliteration
    Repetition of sounds, especially initial consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words

    ex: she sells seashells
  3. Allusion
    A direct or indirect reference to something which is presumably commonly known, such as an event, book, myth, place,or work of art.
  4. Ambiguity
    The multiple meanings, either intentional or unintentional, of a word, phrase, sentence, or passage
  5. Analogy
    A similarity or comparison between two different things or the relationship between them
  6. Antecedent
    The word, phrase, or clause referred to by a pronoun.
  7. Antithesis
    The opposition or contrast of ideas; the direct opposite.
  8. Aphorism
    A terse statement of known authorship which expresses a general truth or a moral principle.
  9. Apostrophe
    A figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or a personified abstraction.
  10. Colloquial/Colloquialism
    The use of slang or informalities in speech or writing.
  11. Loose Sentence
    Maain point is at the beginning.

    ex: We reached Edmonton that morning after a turbulent flight and someexciting experiences.
  12. "We reached Edmonton that morning after a turbulent flight and someexciting experiences."

    This is an example of what syntactal device?
    Loose sentence
  13. Periodic sentence
    Main point is at the end.

    ex: That morning, after a turbulent flight and some exciting experiences,we reached Edmonton.
  14. "That morning, after a turbulent flight and some exciting experiences,we reached Edmonton."

    This is an example of what syntactical device?
    Periodic sentence
  15. Compound Sentence
    • Contains two independent clauses that are joined by a coordinating conjunction or commas and semicolons.

    • ex
      : The saxophone does not belong to the brass family; in fact, it is amember of the woodwind family

    ex: In the fall the war was always there, but we did not go to it any more.
  16. "In the fall the war was always there, but we did not go to it any more."

    This is what type of sentence?
    Compound
  17. "The saxophone does not belong to the brass family; in fact, it is amember of the woodwind family."

    This is what type of sentence?
    Compound
  18. Complex Sentence
    One independent clause and one dependent clause.

    ex: After the town was evacuated, the hurricane began.

    ex: Town officials, who were very concerned, watched the storm.
  19. "Town officials, who were very concerned, watched the storm."

    This is what type of sentence?
    Complex
  20. "After the town was evacuated, the hurricane began."

    This is what type of sentence?
    Complex
  21. Compound-complex Sentence
    Two or more independent clauses and at least onedependent clause.

    ex: When small foreign imports began dominating the US automobileindustry, consumers were very responsive, but American auto workerswere dismayed.
  22. "When small foreign imports began dominating the US automobileindustry, consumers were very responsive, but American auto workerswere dismayed."

    This is what type of sentence?
    Compound-Complex
  23. Interrupted Sentence
    Subordinate clauses come in the middle, set off by dashes orcommas.

    ex: These had been her teachers, -- stern and wild ones, -- and they hadmade her strong….
  24. Simple Sentence
    One subject and one predicate.

    ex: The price of gold rose. Stock prices may fall.
  25. "The price of gold rose. Stock prices may fall."

    This is what type of sentence?
    Simple
  26. Connotation
    The non-literal, associative meaning of a word; the implied, suggested meaning.
  27. Denotation
    The strict, literal, dictionary definition of a word, devoid of any emotion, attitude, or color.
  28. Euphemism
    A more agreeable or less offensive substitute for a generallyunpleasant word or concept.
  29. Hyperbole
    A figure of speech using deliberate exaggeration or overstatement.
  30. What are the three main forms of irony and their definitions?
    (1) verbal irony – when the words literally state the opposite of the writer’s (or speaker’s) meaning

    (2) situational irony – when events turn out the opposite of what was expected; when what the characters andreaders think ought to happen is not what does happen

    (3) dramatic irony – when facts or events are unknown to a character in a play or piece of fiction but known tothe reader, audience, or other characters in the work.
  31. Litotes
    A form of understatement that involves making an affirmative point by denying itsopposite.

    ex: “Not a bad idea,” “Not many,” “It isn’t very serious. I have thistiny little tumor on the brain”
  32. Metonymy
    A figure of speechin which the name of one object is substituted for that of another closely associated with it.

    ex: “the White House declared” rather than “the President declared”
  33. Onomatopoeia
    A figure of speech in which natural sounds are imitated in the sounds of words.

    ex: buzz, hiss, hum, crack, whinny, and murmur
  34. Oxymoron
    Figure of speech wherein the author groups apparentlycontradictory terms to suggest a paradox.

    ex: “jumbo shrimp” and “cruel kindness”
  35. Paradox
    A statement that appears to be self-contradictory or opposed to common sense but upon closer inspection containssome degree of truth or validity.

    ex: “It was the best of times, it wasthe worst of times....”
  36. Parallelism
    The grammatical or rhetorical framing of words, phrases, sentences, or paragraphs to give structuralsimilarity.
  37. What are the three main points of view?
    • First person- narrator tells the story with the first person pronoun, “I,” and is a character in the story. This narratorcan be the protagonist, a secondary character, or an observing character.
    • Third person- narrator relates the events with the third person pronouns, “he,” “she,” and “it.”.
    • Omniscient- in which the narrator, with godlike knowledge, presents the thoughts and actions ofany or all characters
  38. What are the main types of modes?
    • Argumentation
    • Persuasive
    • Description
    • Narration
  39. Satire
    A work that targets human vices and follies or social institutions and conventions for reform or ridicule.
  40. Synecdoche
    A figure of speech in which a part of something is used to represent the whole.

    ex: to refer to a car as “wheels”
  41. Antithesis
    Establishes a clear, contrasting relationship between two ideas by joining them together or juxtaposing them, often in parallel structure.

    • ex: That's one small step for a man, one
    • giant leap for
    • mankind.
  42. Anadiplosis
    Repeats the last word of one phrase, clause, or sentence at or very near the beginning of the next.

    ex: In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
  43. Epistrophe
    Forms the counterpart to anaphora, because the repetition of the same word or words comes at the end of successive phrases, clauses, or sentences.

    • ex: And all the night he did nothing but
    • weep Philoclea, sigh Philoclea, and
    • cry out Philoclea.
  44. Assonance
    Similar vowel sounds repeated in successive or proximate words containing different consonants.

    ex: A city that is set on a hill cannot be hid.
  45. Asyndeton
    Omitting conjunctions between words, phrases, or clauses.
  46. Polysyndeton
    The use of a conjunction between each word, phrase, or clause, and is thus structurally the opposite of asyndeton.
  47. Juxtaposition
    Placing close together or side by side, especially for comparison or contrast.
  48. "Ask not what you country can do for you - ask what you can do for your country."

    This is an example of what type of rhetorical device?
    Antimetabole
  49. "We shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any for to assure the survival and the success of liberty."

    This is an example of what type of rhetorical device?
    Asyndeton
  50. Predicate
    Contains information about the someone or something that is the subject.

    ex: My friend and I both have a dog named Spot.
  51. "I don't like dogs."

    This is an example of what type of sentence?
    Simple
  52. "Our school basketball team lost their last game of the season 75-68."

    This is an example of what type of sentence?
    Simple
  53. "I don't like dogs, and my sister doesn't like cats."

    This is an example of what type of sentence?
    Compound
  54. "You can write on paper, or you can use a computer."

    This is an example of what type of sentence?
    Compound
  55. "You can write on paper, although a computer is better if you want to correct mistakes easily."

    This is what type of sentence?
    Complex
  56. "She did my homework, while her father cooked dinner."

    This is what type of sentence?
    Complex
  57. "I don't like dogs, and my sister doesn't like cats because they make her sneeze."

    This is what type of sentence?
    Compound-Complex
  58. "A tree fell onto the school roof in a storm, but none of the students was injured, although many of them were in classrooms at the top of the building."

    This is what type of sentence?
    Compound-Complex
  59. Sentence Fragments
    Fragment sentences are unfinished sentences, i.e. they don't contain a complete idea.

    ex: She got angry and shouted at the teacher. Which wasn't a very good idea.
  60. "He watched TV for an hour and then went to bed. After falling asleep on the sofa."

    What is the fragment in this sentence?
    "After falling asleep on the sofa."
  61. “But it is the grandeur of all truth which can occupy a very high place in human interests that it is neverabsolutely novel to the meanest of minds; it exists eternally, by way of germ of latent principle, in the lowest asin the highest, needing to be developed but never to be planted."

    What is the antecedent of "it"?
    "all truth"
  62. "Students in on-line classes have to be organized to keep up with their assignments."

    What is the antecedent of "students"?
    "their"

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