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List the factors that determine body water content and describe the effect of each.
age, body mass, sex & amount of body fat. Infants have low body fat & low bone mass are 73% or more water. Total body water declines throughout life accounting for only about 45% of body mass in old age. Healthy man is about 60% water, woman is 50%. Females have more body fat & less skeletal muscle. People with greater muscle mass have more body water.
Distinguish between electrolytes & non-electrolytes.
- Nonelectrolytes have bonds (usually covalent) that prevent them from dissociating in solution, and for this reason, no electrically charged species are created when nonelectrolytes are dissolved in water. Most nonelectrolytes are organice molecules- glucose, lipids, creatinine and urea for example.
- Electrolytes - checmical compounds that do dissociate into ions in water. Because ions are charged particles, they can conduct an electrical current and so have the name electrolyte. Typically, electrolytes include inorganic salts, both inorganic & organic acids & bases, & some proteins.
Identify these terms and understand their relationship: extracellular fluid, intracellular fluid, plasma, interstitial fluid
- Extracellular Fluid - internal fluid located outside cells; include interstitial fluid, blood plasma & cerebrospinal fluid
- Intracellular Fluid - fluid within a cell
- Plasma - non-living fluid component of blood within which formed elements & various solutes are suspended & circulated.
- Interstitial Fluid - fluid between the cells
Describe the importance of ionic sodium in fluid and electrolyte balance of the body, and indicate its relationship to normal carsiovascular system functioning.
Sodium is the most important cation in regulation of fluid & electrolyte balance in the body due to its abundance & osmotic pressure. Because all body fluids are in chemical equilibrium, any changes in sodium levels causes a compensational shift in water affecting plasma volume, blood pressure & intracellular & interstitial fluid. Cardiovascular baroreceptors monitor blood volume so that blood pressure remains stable.
Know these terms: alkalosis, acidosis, edema, dehydration, water intake, water output, metabolic water.
- Alkalosis - state of abnormally low hydrogen ion concentration in the extracellular fluid.
- Acidosis - state of abnormally high hydrogen ion concentration in the extracellular fluid.
- Edema - abnormal increase in the amount of interstitial fluid; causes swelling
- Dehydration - condition of excessive water loss.
- Water Intake - must be equal to water input. Varies widely from person to person & is strongly influenced by habit, but is typically 2500ml a day in adults. Most water enters the body through ingested liquids & solid foods.
- Water Output - occurs by several routes. water that vaporizes out of the lungs in expired air or diffuses directly through the skin is called insensible water loss. Some is lost in perspiration & feces. Tha balance (about 60%) is excreted by the kidneys in urine.
- Metabolic Water - (water of oxidation) - water produced from cellular metabolism (about 10% of our body's waters).
List the 3 major chemical buffer systems of the body.
- Bicarbonate Buffer System - a mixture of carbonic acid (H2CO3) & its salt, sodium bicarbonate (NAHCO3, a weak base), in the same solution. Although it buffers the ICF, it is the only important ECF buffer.
- Phosphate Buffer System - nearly identical to bicarbonate buffer. The components of this system are the sodium salts & dihydrogen phospate (H2PO4-) & monohydrogen phosphate (HPO42-). Very effective buffer in urine & ICF where phosphate concentrations are usually higher.
- Protein Buffer System - proteins in plasma & in cells are the body's most plentiful & powerful source of buffers & constitute the protein buffer system. At least 3/4 of all the buffering power of body fluids resides in cells & most of this reflects the buffering activity of intracellular proteins.
What are the functions for the following reproductive organs? Uterus, Fallopian tubes, ovaries, vagina
- Uterus - hollow, thick-walled, muscular organ that functions to receive, retain & nourish a fertilized ovum.
- Fallopian tubes - (uterine tubes or oviducts) - form the initial part of the female duct system. They receive the ovulated oocyte & are the site where fertilization generally occurs.
- Ovaries - (female gonads) - primary reproductive organs of a female. Serve a dual purpose; produce female gametes(ova) & sex hormones, estrogen & progesterone.
- Vagina - thin-walled tube, 8-10 cm long. provides passageway for delivery of an infant & for menstrual flow. Because it receives the penis (and semen) during intercourse, it is the female organ of copulation
What are the functions for the following male reproductie organs? testes, vas deferens, urethra, penis, prostate gland, epididymis.
- testes - plum -sized, contain one to four tightly coiled semineferous tubules (sperm carrying), the actual "sperm factories" squeeze sperm & testicular fluids thru the tubules & out of the testes.
- Vas deferens - (ductus deferens) - "carrying away" transport sperm from the epididymis in anticipation of ejaculation.
- Urethra - it conveys both urine & semen, so it serves both the urinary & reproductive systems.
- Penis - (tail) - a copulatory organ designed to deliver sperm into the female reproductive tract.
- Prostate - doughnut shaped gland the size of a peach pit. activates sperm & accounts for up to 1/3 of semen volume . Slightly milky, acid fluid that contains citrite, several enzymes & PSA.
- Epididymis - cup shaped - male duct system where sperm mature. Empties into the vas deferens.
Name the 2 anterior pituitary gonadotrophic hormones, and give their functions in the male & female reproductive system.
- FSH - stimulates ovarian follicle production in females & sperm production in males.
- LH - aids in maturation of cells in ovary & triggers ovulation in females. In males, causes the interstitial cells of the testis to produce testosterone.
Give the functions of the following hormones, and name the organ that secretes each hormone. Estrogen, progesterone, testosterone.
- Estrogen - ovaries - hormones that stimulate female secondary sex hormones, female sex hormones
- Progesterone - ovaries - partly responsible for preparing the uterus for the fertilized ovum
- Testosterone - testes - during pubery promotes virilization & is necessary for normal sperm production
List the male & female secondary sex characteristics.
- Male - pubic, axillary & facial hair, enhanced hair growth on chest. Deepening of the voice as the larynx enlarges, skin thickens & becomes oilier, bones grow & increase in density & skeletal muscles grow in size & mass
- Female - growth of breasts, increased deposit of subcutaneous fat in hips & breasts, widening & lightening of the pelvis
What is meiosis? know these terms; Spermatogenesis, oogenesis, diploid, haploid, ovum/ova, polar bodies, sperm
- Meiosis - nuclear division that reduces the chromosomal numbers by half & results in the formation of 4 haploid cells.
- Spermatogenesis - (sperm formation) - sequence of events in the semineferous tubules of the testes that produces male gametes (sperm/spermatozoa), begins around 14 & continues thru life. Healthy males make 400 million sperm
- Oogenesis - (beginning of an egg) - process of ovum (female gamete) formation
- Diploid 2n - the chromosomal number characteristic of an organism. twice the chromosomal number (n) of the gamete in humans, 2n=46
- Haploid 1n - number of chromosomes in human gametes is 23. gametes contain only one member of each homologous pair. A fertilized egg reestablishes the typical diploid chromosomal number of human cells (2n)
- Ovum/Ova - female gamete; egg
- Polar bodies - produced after every meiotic division. relatively smaller in size due to less cytoplasm compared to the gametocyte that will become the ovum. This is essential so that much of the cytoplasm is available & the chromosomal content is halved at the time of fertilization. they will eventually degenerate.
- Sperm - male gamete
Understand these terms in relationship to the female ovarian/uterine (menstrual)cycle: follicle, endometrium, secretory phase, corpus luteum, corpus albicans, ovulation, oocyte.
- Follicle - ovarian structure consisting of developing egg surrounded by one or more layers of follicle cells
- Endometrium - mucous membrane lining of the uterus
- Secretory Phase - (postovulatory) - days 15-28 - endometrium prepares for implantation of an embryo
- Corpus Luteum - (yellow body) - the remaining granulosa cells of a ruptured follicle begins to secrete progesterone & some estrogen. if pregnancy does not occur, it starts degenerating in about 10 days. If pregnancy occurs, it persists until the placenta is ready to take over its hormone producing duties in about 3 months.
- Corpus albicans - (white body)degenerated corpus luteum that remains a scar
- Ovulation - ejection of an immature egg (oocyte) from the ovary
- Oocyte - immature female gamete
Understand the role of hormones in the female reproductive cycles.
- 1. GNRH stimulates FSH & LH secretion day 1 of the cycle
- 2. FSH & LH stimulate follicle growth & maturation & estrogen secretions
- 3. Negative feedback - rising estrogen levels in plasma exert negative feedback on the hypothalamus & anterior pituitary, inhibiting release of FSH & LH
- 4. Positive Feedback - once estrogen reaches a critical blood concentration, it briefly exerts positive feedback on the brain & anterior pituitary
- 5. LH surge
- 6. Ovulation
- 7. Corpus luteum forms
- 8. negative feedback inhibits LH & FSH release
Know the causative agent ans symptoms of the following STD's: Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, Syphilis, Genital Herpes
- Gonorrhea - (the clap) - bacterium - causative agent: Neisseria Gonorrhoeae - Symptoms - Males - urethritis, painful urination & discharge of pus from the penis
- women - none (20%), abdominal discomfort, abnormal uterine bleeding & occassionally urethral symptoms similar to males
- Chlamydia - bacterium - causative agent - Chlamydia trachomatis - symptoms - urethritis, painful urination & thick penile discharge, vaginal discharge, abdominal , rectal or testicular pain, painful intercourse & irregular menses
- Syphilis - bacterium - causative agent - treponema pallidum- symptoms - painless chancre, pink skin rash, fever & joint pain
- Genital herpes - virus - causative agent - human herpes virus type 2 - symptoms - blisterlike lesions