Digestive System Infections

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Author:
PittNurseKE
ID:
150613
Filename:
Digestive System Infections
Updated:
2012-04-27 22:25:29
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Digestive System Infections
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Digestive System Infections
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  1. Tooth Decay
    • Sx: toothache, discoloration, breakage
    • Prev: Good oral hygiene, restrict sugar intake, fluoride
  2. Periodontal Disease
    Sx: asymptomatic (bleeding gums, loosening of teeth, receding gums)

    Prev: Flossing, brushing, good oral hygiene

    Tx: removal of plaque & calculus, surgery
  3. Trench Mouth
    Sx: abrupt onset, fever, bleeding gums, foul odor

    Spirochete, interact synergistically w/other anaerobes

    • Prev: good oral hygiene
    • Tx: antibacterial meds
  4. Helicobacter pylori Gastritis
    Sx: Belching, vomiting, abdominal pain, bleeding

    multiple polar flagella

    Prev: No proven measures

    Tx: 2 antibiotics w/a med that inhibits stomach acid production
  5. Herpes Simplex
    Sx: fever, blisters, painful ulcers, recurrent sx

    latent infection

    Tx: Acyclovir, penciclovir to halt progression, but not cure
  6. Mumps
    Sx: Swelling of parotid glands, painful enlargement of testes or pelvic pain in women

    Prev: MMRV vaccine

    Tx: no antiviral meds available; wait it out
  7. Campylobacteriosis
    Sx: bloody/watery stool, abdominal cramps, fever, vomiting, nausea

    curved, gram neg rod w/flagella

    Prev: wash hands, cook food thouroughly, clean surfaces, pasteurization

    Tx: usu none needed, severe cases - erythromycin
  8. Cholera
    Sx: Abrupt onset of massive diarrhea, vomiting, muscle cramps

    gram neg w/ flagella, able to tolerate hi salt conc

    Prev: sanitaion, clean water, hand washing, vaccination

    Tx: rehydration w/electrolytes, IV or oral glucose
  9. Shigellosis
    Sx: Dysentery, vomiting, fever, stiff neck, convulsions, joint pain

    gram neg, nonmotile

    Prev: sanitary measures; no vaccine

    Tx: antimicrobial meds (ampicillin)
  10. E. coli Gastroenteritis
    Sx: vomiting, diarrhea, sometimes dysentery

    • Enterotoxigenic (ETEC): travelers & infants
    • Enteroinvasive (EIEC): similar to shigella
    • Enteropathogenic (EPEC): hospitals & nurseries
    • Enteroaggregatice (EAEC): children, AIDS, travellers
    • Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC): severe illness, bloody diarrhea

    Prev: hand washing, pasteurization, thorough cooking of food

    Tx: replacing fluids, Pepto-Bismol
  11. Salmonellosis
    Sx: Diarrhea, vomiting, rarely: fever, headache, abdom pain, abscesses, shock

    gram neg from animal sources

    Prev: adequate cooking, oral vaccine; eggs & poultry often contaminated

    Tx: usu not treated unless bact invaded tiss or blood - then manage sx and treat dehydration
  12. Hepatitis A
    Sx: dark urine, clay colored stool, jaundice, flu-like sx

    acute, least severe

    Prev:
    Vaccine

    Tx: no known; recover naturally
  13. Hepatitis B
    Sx: Dark urine, Jaundice, flu-like sx

    Chronic or acute

    Prev: Vaccine, safe sex

    Tx: no known for acute; chronic gets genetically engineered interferon injection or liver removal
  14. Hepatitis C
    Sx: mostly asymptomatic; with acute - dark urine, jaundice, flu-like but milder than other 2 types

    Chronic, thru body fluids, drug use

    Prev: no vaccine

    Tx: no know antiviral tx; genetically engineered interferon injections
  15. Rotaviral Gastroenteritis
    Sx: vomiting, fever, profuse watery diarrhea, abd cramps

    causes decreased production of digestive enzymes; back to norm in 1 wk

    Prev: handwashing, sanitary measures

    Tx: vaccine
  16. Noroviral Gastroenteritis
    Sx: Nausea, vomiting, watery diarrhea, cramps, sx for 12-60 hrs

    Category B bioterrorism agent

    cannot be lab-cultivated; recover in 2 wks; targets cruise ships & college dorms

    Prev: handwashing, employee hygiene

    Tx: No vaccine & no proven antiviral meds
  17. Giardiasis
    Sx: Nausea, vomiting

    pear shaped flagellated protozoan, person-to-person, fecal-oral route

    Prev: handwashing, disinfecting water

    Tx: Atrabrine & Flagyl
  18. Cryptosporidiosis
    Sx: Fever, crampy abd pain, watery diarrhea

    increases secretion of water from sm intest; wide host range

    Prev: clean water, pasturization, sanitary disposal of feces

    Tx: none; combo of 2 antibiotics has helped AIDS pts w/disease
  19. Cyclosporiasis
    Sx: Fatigue, loss appetite, vomiting, watery diarrhea, weight loss

    lab animals not susceptible; imported produce - esp raspberries

    Prev: boiled driking water, wash produce

    Tx: Cotrimoxazole
  20. Amebiasis
    Sx: commonly asymptomatic, diarrhea, abd pain, dysentery

    colonizes lg intest, can invade liver & create abscesses; fecal-oral route; poverty, male homos & migrant farm workers

    Prev: Sanitary conditions, clean water

    Tx: Certain antibiotics

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