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what an animal percieves at an absolute moment in time, as the animal moves about, context is always in a flux.
Ground squirrels and its' anti predator behaviors.
- 1. detection and recognition of predators
- 2. assessing biotic and abiotic variables. The squirrels must know what the predator can do as well as where they will be safe.
- 3. executing evasive behavior. the squirrel must used what it knows to get away.
anything that removes an organism from the gene pool before it reproduces
When a trait continues to show up in the same species for many generations after it is no longer needed for its original purpose.
the ability on an organism to pass on its genes. The greater the fitness, the greater the number of offspring an organism will have.
Source of selection
The behavior of the organism that leads it to have a lower fitness. This behavior must be able to passed on to subsequents generations. A non-genetic source would have a random affect. This does not come from "pressure" in the environment, but from the animal interacting with its environment.
When a species stays the same over long periods of time.
- When a species make an abrupt chages. Genes will regulate themselves to keep species the same up to a point, but once that point is reached a saltatory change or mutation will occur.
- ex) bipedalism
The genetic instructions of an animals
The actual body form that an organis has. The genotype interacts with the environment to produce pheonotype.
All aspects of an organism's environmental relationship
This refers to the different times during development in which a trait appears. Two examples are neoteny and hypermorphosis
refers to the developmentally accelarated appearance of a trait ina sexually mature individual. delayed developmental maturation ex juvenile looking huan face in the adult and the human feet
the developmental delay of sexual maturity copared with the ancestral condition with no change in the developmental appearance of other ancestral traits.
The whole life span of an organism. It is within this that natural selection operates.
the history of species. This operates over many generations.
The extent to which a trait reliably shows up in a particular organism. can be weak or deeply canalized.
The possible paths of development that an individual may take. Instinct is the whole epigenetic landscape.
- the varying ability of an organism to learn a particular relationship.
- 1. prepared. takes only one trial to learn, such as an aversive taste that can cause illness
- 2. unprepared. involves several trial to learn, ex. calculus
- 3. contraprepared. eans noth being able to learn, such as us not being able to learn about ultraviolet light, we can't see it.
when two traits are in competittion, each forcing the other to improve. This is often between prey and predator. As the prey gets better at eluding the predatro, the predator must improve its ability to catch the prey, which leads the prey to improve, etc.
enlargements of the neocortex. The neocortex is the old mammalian forebrain. In mammals, encephalization occurs right at the time of the extinction of the dinosaurs.
Approach and Withdrawal Responses
Sensory input that will lead an animal to either investigate further or run away. Animals, including people, will withdraw from stimulu that seem threatening.
When a fresh stimuli elicits a progressively weaker reaction. As we get used to a certain sound or sight, we pay less attention to it.
What are the advantages of living in groups?
- 1. a predator may catch someone else in the group besides you, which increases your survival odds.
- 2. mates may be more readily available
- 3.***other member of one's species can become information sourcfes about location of predators or food. This is using another's sense to further your own.
in a social group, the focus of attention is on the most important individual. That is, who is the center of attention and watched by others. For example, in a babboon tribe, there is usually one alpha male. All other males watch his actions.
What is the important for the tendency to be attracted to sparkiling object?
Water has a shining and sparkling proper.When traveling in the dry savannah, it is critical to notice the sparkling object because it is a sign that water is nearby.
Any preference for a physical trait by the opposite sex
- -long term bonding
- -scarce food and resources, male tend to care fo offspring also
- -males hold and defend a territory, female preference for best provider and most fit male
- -Males and females the same size, longer life span for both sexes
- -elaborate courtship of the female by the male
- --"silent" estrus--a mate is readily available, no need advertise for mate
- -Brief coupling, promiscuity
- -food more plentiful, females exclusively care for the young
- -male and females travel together in troops
- -males signficantly larger than females, higher male mortality due to fighting within group
- -obvious estrus--to let potential know it is time to breed.
Why do people preferred savannah over desert? what are the primate roots?>
savannah has trees that are climbable, trees with wide canopy, that allows you to get away from predator. In addition, it is a wide open scene so one can see for miles.
In Dr. Coss study what pictures is liked best and show most arousal. what is the results?
- People like pictures with water in them the best. When grouped by depth, here is the results:
- -liked views with the greatest depths the best
- -closer scene caused greater arousal measure by increase in pupil size.
- -Subjects felt the pictures with the greatest depths were the most familiar.
Humans and domestication of plants
people domesticated plants by choosing those plants most favorable for planting-those that retain their seeds. Eventually humans caused genetic changes in the plants, the plants began to rely on humans as vehicles for transmitting seeds.