final exam.txt

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final exam.txt
2012-04-28 13:15:11
Biology final exam

BIOL final exam 32-45
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  1. enzymes that aid in carbohydrate digestion & their source
    • salivary amylase-saliva
    • pancreatic amylase - small intestine
    • dextrinase & glucoamylase
    • maltase sucrase & lactase
  2. enzymes that aid in protein digestion & source
    • pepsin - stomach
    • renin-kidneys
    • trypin & chymotrypsin-pancrease
    • carboxypeptidase
    • aminopeptidase
    • dipeptidase
  3. enzymes that aid in lipid digestion & source
    lipoprotein lipase - bloodstream
  4. deep, permanent folds of the mucosa & submucosa; force chyme to spiral through the lumen, slowing its movement & allowing time for full nutrient absorption:
    plicae circulares
  5. fingerlike projections of the mucosa; digested foodstuffs are absorbed through the epitheal cells into both the capillary blood & the lacteal:
  6. major means of propulsion, involves alternate waves of contraction & relaxation of muscles in the organ walls; squeezes food along the tract, but some mixing occurs as well:
  7. physically prepares food for chemical digestion by enzymes; includes chewing, mixing food with saliva by the tongue, churning food in stomach & segmentation of the small intestine:
    mechanical digestion
  8. series of catabolic steps in which complex food molecules are broken down to their chemical building blocks by enzymes secreted into the lumen of the alimentary canal; begins in the mouth & is complete in the small intestine:
    chemical digestion
  9. digestion in the mouth:
  10. digestion in the stomach:
  11. digestion in the small intestines:
  12. digestion in the large intestines:
  13. organs of the urinary system:
    • kidneys
    • urinary bladder
    • uretars
    • urethra
  14. allows filtrate to pass into the glomerular capsule:
  15. extensions terminate food processes that cling to basement membrane & filtration slits allow filtrate to pass into the capsular space:
    Bowman's capsule
  16. allows large amounts of solute-rich, virtually protein-free fluid to pass from blood into glomerular capsule:
    renal corpuscle
  17. functions in reabsorption & secretion:
    proximal convolued tubule
  18. functions more in secretion that reabsorption:
    loop of Henle
  19. filtrate from the renal corpuscle passes through the proximal convoluted tubule first & then the distal:
    distal convolued tubule
  20. plays an important role in regulating the rate of filtrate formation and systemic blood pressure:
    juxtaglomerular apparatus
  21. low-pressure porous capillaries adapted for absorption:
    peritubual capillaries
  22. characteristics of urine:
    • color & transparency (clear, pale to deep yellow)
    • odor (slightly aromatic when fresh, ammonia after sitting out)
    • pH (slightly acidic)
    • 95% water; 5% solutes
    • nitrogenous wastes- urea, uric acid & creatinine
  23. hormone that acts enzymatically on angiotensinogen (plasma globulin made by liver) converting it to angiotensin I:
  24. stabilizes blood pressure & extracellular fluid volume:
    angiotensin II
  25. triggers for micturition:
    • contraction of detrusor muscles by ANS
    • opening of internal urethral sphincter by ANS
    • opening of external urethral sphincter by somatic nervous system
  26. percent of the filtrate that is finally released as urine:
  27. 3 steps of diluted urine formation:
    • 1. filtrate is diluted in ascending loop of Henle
    • 2. in the absence of ADH, dilute filtrate continues into renal pelvis as dilute urine
    • 3. Na+ & other ions maybe selectively removed in the DCT & collecting duct, decreasing osmolaity to as low as 50 mOsm
  28. 3 steps of concentrate urine formation:
    • 1. depends on the medullary osmatic gradient & ADH
    • 2. ADH triggers reabsorption of water in collecting ducts
    • 3. facultative water reabsorption occurs in the presence of ADH fo that 99% of water filtrate is reabsorbed