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What is cystitis?
inflammation of the bladder
What are the clinical signs of cystitis?
What is pollakiuria?
abnormal frequent urination
Cystitis may or may not involve infection for dogs? Cats?
What are uroliths?
What are uroliths related to?
Once formed, uroliths can...
- pass out of the urinary tract
- remain in the bladder
- obstruct the urethra
What happens when the urethra gets obstructed?
- pressure backs up to the kidneys
- rapid onset of azotemia
- death will follow unless obstruction is relieved
urolithes = _____ = _____
urolithes = calculi = stones
Where can there be stones?
What is more common then stones?
What is often seen if stones are present?
What are the different types of stones seen?
- calcium oxalate
- urate (uric acid)
What is the most common urolith in dogs?
What are struvite stones?
magnesium ammonium phosphate
What type of urine causes struvite urolithiasis?
What else is common when a dog has struvite urolithiasis?
How do we diagnose struvite urolithiasis?
- radiography (radiodense)
- urinalysis (coffin lid crystals, pH > 7)
How do we treat struvite urolithiasis?
- control the infection
- acidify urine
- calculolytic diet (high salt, low phosphorus, low magnesium, low protein, contain urinary acidifier)
Which tyes of dogs are calcium oxalate stones more common in?
What type of urine forms calcium oxalate stones?
How do we diagnose calcium oxalate stones?
- radiography (radiodense)
- urinalysis (square 3-D crystals with "x", crystals not always in urine)
How do we treat calcium oxalate stones?
- diets won't help dissolve stones, but will help prevent them
Which type of dogs get urate urolithiasis?
Why do dalmations get urate urolithiasis?
- can't metabolize uric acid well
- excrete large amounts in acidic urine
What do urate stones look like?
- most small and spherical
- often radiolucent
How do we prevent urate stones?
- diet: low protein, alkaline-producing diet with no extra salt
- Allopurinol: inhibits production of uric acid
- control urinary tract infection
- increase urine volume
Are cystine stones common?
Can cystine stones be reabsorbed?
Why kind of pH causes cystine stones?
Where are cystine stones most commonly found?
in male urethra
Can we tell what uroliths are just by looking at them?
What does FLUTD stand for?
feline lower urinary tract disease
What percent of the cat population get FLUTD?
What factors cause FLUTD?
- water consumption
How do diet and water consumption relate to cats getting FLUTD?
- pH of urine is related to diet
- mineral content (magnesium causes struvite, calcium causes calcium oxalate)
- water content (concentrated urine causes crystals)
Is FLUTD related to bacteria?
no, 95% of cases have no bacterial component
What are some signs of FLUTD?
How do we diagnose a cat with FLUTD?
- urinalysis (pH of urine, crystals, presence of blood or WBC's, casts)
How do we treat obstructed FLUTD?
- SQ fluids
- increase water intake (add water to canned food)
- limit stress
- change diet
What kinds of cats get obstructive FLUTD?
Do indoor cats or outdoor cats get obstructive FLUTD more frequently?
Is obstructive FLUTD an emergency?
What do we do when a cat comes in with a possible obstructive FLUTD?
- bloodwork: azotemia, hyperkalemia
- relieve obstruction
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