Antiviral drugs

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Author:
USUHS14
ID:
150725
Filename:
Antiviral drugs
Updated:
2012-04-28 19:06:31
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pharm anti viral drugs
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Description:
pharm anti-viral drugs
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  1. Enfuvirtide
    • Blocks fusion of HIV virion to lymphocytes
    • Synthetic peptide based in HIV gp41
  2. Maraviroc
    • CCR5 antagonist
    • Blocks binding of HIV viral gp120 to CCR5
  3. Palivizumab
    • MAB against F protein of RSV, preventing entry into the cell
    • Prophylaxis for high-risk infants
  4. Amantadine
    • Interferes with viral un-coating via blocking M2 proton channel
    • Used for Influenza A prophylaxis
  5. Rimantadine
    • Interferes with viral un-coating via blocking M2 proton channel
    • Used for Influenza A prophylaxis
  6. Oseltamivir
    • Inhibits viral neuraminidase, thereby blocking budding of new virus and sowing the spread through the respiratory tract
    • Use as prophylaxis and treatment of influenza A and B
    • Orally administered
  7. Zanamivir
    • Inhibits viral neuraminidase, thereby blocking budding of new virus and sowing the spread through the respiratory tract
    • Use as prophylaxis and treatment of influenza A and B
    • Administered by inhalation
  8. Acyclovir
    • Guanosine analogue that inhibits viral DNA polymerase
    • Must be phosphorylated by viral Thymidine Kinase
    • Use for HSV-1&2 and VZV
  9. Valacyclovir
    • Prodrug form of acyclovir
    • Yields 3-5x greater serum concentration of acyclovir
    • Reduces transmission of HSV-2 by 50%
  10. Penciclovir
    • Acyclovir analogue
    • Used to treat herpes labialis
  11. Ribavirin
    • Synthetic nucleoside that perturbs intracellular nucleotide pools and inhibits GMP synthesis
    • Used for HCV in combination with an interferon alpha
  12. Entecavir
    • NRTI
    • Guanine nucleoside analogue
    • Use for HBV
    • Can cause potentially fatal lactic acidosis
  13. Telbivudine
    • NRTI
    • Guanine nucleoside analogue
    • Use for HBV
    • Can cause potentially fatal lactic acidosis
  14. Cidofovir
    • Acyclic nucleoside phosphonate
    • Use for resistant CMV retinitis
    • Can also use for small pox and small pox vaccine reactions
    • Nephrotoxic
  15. Adefovir
    • Acyclic nucleoside phosphonate
    • Use for HBV
    • Nephrotoxic
    • Withdrawal can cause hepatic flares
  16. Foscarnet
    • Inhibits HSV ad CMV DNA polymerase
    • Effective against ganciclovir-resistant CMV in AIDS and acyclovir resistant HSV in AIDS
    • May cause nephrotoxicity and symptomatic hypocalcemia
  17. Ganciclovir
    • Guanine nucleoside analog that inhibits CMV DNA polymerase
    • Must be phosphorylated by viral UL97 phosphotransferase
    • Can cause granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia
    • Use for CMV retinitis and severe CMV infx in immunocompromised hosts
  18. Interferon alfas
    • Inhibit viral protein synthesis
    • Use for chronic HBV and HCV and a variety of malignancies
    • 2b and n3 can be used for condyloma acuminata
    • Must be administered IM or IV
    • May cause marrow suppression
  19. Boceprevir
    • HCV protease inhibitor
    • Induces CYP3A4, therefore don't use with drugs metabolized by CYP3A4
  20. Telaprevir
    • HCV protease inhibitor
    • Induces CYP3A4, therefore don't use with drugs metabolized by CYP3A4
  21. Zidovudine (AZT)
    • NRTI
    • Use for HIV
    • Thymidine analogue that inhibits reverse transcriptase
    • Metabolism and excretion are slowed by probenecid, acetaminophen and aspirin
    • Can cause anemia and neutropenia
    • Can induce potentially fatal lactic acidosis (because inhibits mitochondrial DNA polymerase)
  22. Lamivudine (3TC)
    • NRTI
    • Cytosine analog
    • Use for HIV and HBV
    • Can induce potentially fatal lactic acidosis
  23. Emtricitabine
    • NRTI
    • flouro-derivative of lamivudine
    • Use for HIV and HBV
    • Can induce potentially fatal lactic acidosis
  24. Abacavir
    • NRTI
    • Guanosine analogue
    • Can cause severe hypersensitivity (especially with HLA-B*5701)
    • Can cause potentially fatal lactic acidosis
  25. Tenofovir Disoproxil
    • Acyclic nucleoside phosphonate inhibitor of reverse transcriptase
    • Antiviral activity in resting cells
    • Use for HIV and HBV
    • Can cause Fanconi syndrome
  26. Nevirapine
    • NNRTI (allosteric inhibitor of reverse transcriptase)
    • Use in combination therapy
    • May cause rash, fatigue, and nausea
  27. Efavirenz
    • NNRTI (allosteric inhibitor of reverse transcriptase
    • Use in combination therapy
    • May cause nightmares & psychological effects
    • Contraindicated in pregnancy
  28. Atazanavir
    • HIV protease inhibitor thereby blocking cleavage of multiprotein precursor
    • Metabolized by and inhibitor of CYP3A4
    • Lowest incidence of lipodystrophy among PIs
  29. Darunavir
    • HIV protease inhibitor, thereby blocking cleavage of multiprotein precursor
    • Metabolized and inhibited by CYP3A4
    • May cause lipodystrophy
  30. Indinavir
    • HIV protease inhibitor, thereby blocking cleavage of multiprotein precursor
    • Metabolized and inhibited by CYP3A4
    • May cause lipodystrophy, renal toxicity, and increased bilirubin
  31. Lopinavir
    • HIV protease inhibitor, thereby blocking cleavage of multiprotein precursor
    • Metabolized and inhibited by CYP3A4
    • May cause lipodystrophy
  32. Fosamprenavir
    • HIV protease inhibitor, thereby blocking cleavage of multiprotein precursor
    • Metabolized and inhibited by CYP3A4
    • May cause lipodystrophy
  33. Ritonavir
    • HIV protease inhibitor, thereby blocking cleavage of multiprotein precursor
    • Metabolized and inhibited by CP3A4
    • Not a great PI but is a very potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 therefore increases the effectiveness of other PIs when used in combination
    • May cause lipodystrophy and GI symptoms
    • When used with rifampin may cause hepatitis
  34. Saquinavir
    • HIV protease inhibitor, thereby blocking cleavage of multiprotein precursor
    • Metabolized and inhibited by CYP3A4
    • May cause lipodystrophy and GI symptoms
  35. Tipranavir
    • HIV protease inhibitor, thereby blocking cleavage of multiprotein precursor
    • Metabolized and inhibited by CYP3A4
    • May cause lipodystrophy
  36. Raltegravir
    • HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitor (InSTI)
    • Use in combination therapy
    • Minimal side-effects

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