Microbiology

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Author:
blakers98
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150726
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Microbiology
Updated:
2012-12-04 17:28:52
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new info final
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New info for final
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  1. Major causes of GI Infection:
    teeth?
    oral?
    Stomach?
    jejunum,ileum?
    large intestine?
    • teeth=caries
    • oral=stomatitis
    • stomach=gastrinitis
    • jejunum,ileum=enteritis
    • large intestine=colitis
  2. Dental Caries
    Causes?
    Signs/Symptoms?
    Pathogens?
    Treatment?
    Etiology?
    • causes= gram + coccus in chains & other bacteria
    • symptoms= S mutans/enamel/dental plague/caries
    • pathogens=
    • *sucrose + S. mutans : glucose&fructose
    • *glucose + S. mutans: dextran (attachement factor)
    • *fructose+ S. mutans: lactic acid (attack enamel)
    • treatment= drilling & filling
    • etiology= normal flora + sucrose
  3. Gingivitis to Periodontitis (anaerobes)
    causes?
    symptoms?
    pathogens?
    diagnosis?
    treatment?
    etiology?
    • causes= Porphyromonas+ other bacteria
    • also spirochetes, amoebae & trichomonads

    • symptoms= bleeding gums to tooth loss
    • pathogens= right combination of the above bacteria
    • diagnosis= appearance of gums
    • treatment= removal of calculus & plague, antibiotic therapy
    • etiology= normal flora

    **can be prevented by good brushing & flossing
  4. Stomatitis
    causes?
    etiology?
    • causes= Candida albicans (thrush)
    • etiology= opportunists
  5. Mumps Virus
    causes?
    symptoms?
    pathogens?
    diagnosis?
    treatment?
    etiology?
    • causes= ssRNA enveloped; one serotype
    • symptoms= painful parotitis in 70%
    • -grbrt, chills, headache, malaise
    • pathogens= viremia seen above age 1
    • diagnosis= sympotomatic, ELISA
    • treatment= MMR (live attenuated; 95% effective contraindicated during pregnancy)
    • etiology= humans only-saliva: 2M USA without vaccine
    • -a dangerous complication is painful unilateral orchitis in 20-35% of post puberty males
  6. Bacterial Food Poisoning
    (Staphylococcus aureus)
    causes?
    symptoms?
    pathogens?
    diagnosis?
    treatment?
    etiology?
    • causes= gram + coccus, catalase +, coagulase +
    • symptoms= severe nausea, emesis & diarrhea
    • pathogens=heat stable enterotocin (withstands 100 degrees C for 30 min)
    • diagnosis= ingestion 1-6 hours, symptoms for 8 hours
    • treatment= not necessary
    • etiology= improper food handling, preparation, storage*****

    **similar sympotoms caused by C. perfringens 12-36 hours after ingestion
  7. GI Disease Terminology:

    Intoxication
    Ingestion of pre-formed toxin & resulting signs & symptoms
  8. GI Disease Terminology:

    Infection
    Pathogen enters the GItract & multiplies
  9. GI Disease Terminology:

    Toxico-infection
    Pathogen enters the GI tract, multiples & produces a toxin in GI tract, causing illness.
  10. GI Disease Terminology:

    Dysentery
    Severe diarrhea accompanied by blood or mucus
  11. Enterocolitis (salmonellosis)
    (Salmonella enteritidis)
    causes?
    symptoms?
    pathogens?
    diagnosi?
    treatment?
    etiology?
    • causes= gram - rod, 2000 serovars
    • symptoms= nausea, crampy abdominal pain, diarrhea, moderate fever
    • pathogens= ingestion 12 to 48 hours/ toxicoinfection to enterotoxin
    • diagnosis= culture & ID, lactose
    • treatment= rehydration & bland diet
    • etiology= fecal- oral; sanitary food preparation, eggs & poultry, tomatoes, peanut better, pistachios, red pepper
  12. Typhoid Fever "enteric fever"
    (Salmonella typhi)
    causes?
    symptoms?
    pathogens?
    diagnosis?
    treatment?
    etiology?
    • causes= gram - rod
    • symptoms= high fever & headache first, diarrhea in 2nd& 3rd week, fever declining
    • pathogens= ingestion for 10- 14 days- infection to septicemia and mortality in 1 in 5 ppl if not treated
    • enterotoxin, endotoxin
    • diagnosis=blood culture&ID, lactose
    • treatment= Ceftriaxone, supportive therapy, live attenuated oral vaccine (70% effective)
    • etiology= 400 to 500 cases per year, oral-fecal route, gall bladder carries, sanitary food preperation
  13. Food Poisoning (also gas gangrene)
    (Clostridium perfringens)
    causes?
    symptoms?
    pathogens?
    diagnosis?
    treatment?
    etiology?
    • causes= anaerobic gram + rod, endospore
    • symptoms= stomach cramps & diarrhea for up to 24 hours
    • pathogens= ingestion for 8 to 12 hours, toxin, symptoms for 24 hours
    • diagnosis= symptomatic
    • treatment= no treatment, not fatal
    • etiology= commonly in meats,desserts, salads
    • **Toxin is heat labile
    • ***Contrast with heat stable toxin from S.aureus food poisoning 1-6 hours after ingestion
  14. Special Situations:

    #1 problem is a needle stick or shaprs injury by what agent?
    HBV
  15. Special Situations:

    What is herpetic whitlow?
    Herpetic whitlow from HSV 1 on hands of health care workers with oral fluids contact.
  16. Special situations:

    What are aerosol transmissible?
    TB, Influenza Virus, & Rhinovirus are aerosol transmissible so any association is a risk.
  17. Name some standard precautions.
    • -Gloves for all touching. change gloves between patients
    • -Always use good antisepsis and disinfection
    • -Masks, gowns. and eye protection for droplet generating procedures.
    • -Hand-washing before and after all invasive procedures, or if contaminated with body fluids and after gloves are removed
    • -Observe sharp object precautions
    • -All blood & body fluids (BBF) containers should be considered potentially contaminated.
    • **therefore wipe off with chlorox disinfectant

    -Infectious wastes should be place in biohazard or infectious waste containers
  18. Infectious Hazards for Health Care Workers:

    Name some blood- borne pathogens or bodily fluids.
    • -CMV
    • -Hepatitis B Virus
    • -Hepatitis C Virus
    • -HIV
    • -Ebola

    ***Organisms of Bioterrorism
  19. Infectious Hazards for Health Care Workers:

    Name some airborne pathogens.
    • -tuberculosis
    • -neisseria meningitidis
    • -influenza
    • -SARS
    • -chickenpox
    • -smallpox*****

    ***Organisms of Bioterrorism
  20. Infectious Hazards for Health Care Workers:

    Name some other pathogens.
    • -Bacillus anthracis
    • -Francisella tularensis

    ***Organisms of Bioterrorism
  21. Name some airborne precautions.
    • -Private negative ire pressure room, doors closed
    • -N95 dust/mist mask for all persons entering room
    • -Wash hand before entering room and upon leaving
    • -Glove and gown as per Standard precautions
  22. Isolation Categories: Airborne

    negative pressure?
    mask?
    gown?
    gloves?
    • neg pressure= yes
    • mask= yes
    • gown= sometimes
    • gloves= sometimes
  23. Isolation Categories: Contact

    negative pressure?
    mask?
    gown?
    gloves?
    • negative pressure= no
    • mask= sometimes
    • gown= yes
    • gloves= yes
  24. Isolation Categories: Droplet

    negative pressure?
    mask?
    gown?
    gloves?
    • negative pressure= no
    • mask= yes
    • gown= sometimes
    • gloves= sometimes
  25. Name some contact precautions.
    • -Patients with same organism in same room, private recommended
    • -Wash hands before entering room & upon leaving. Also before and after glove removal and between patients
    • -Gown at all times
    • -Mask as per standard precautions
    • (suctioning, dressing changes, etc)
  26. Name some droplet precautions.
    • -Private room necessary
    • -Wash hands before and after entering room.
    • -Glove and gown appropriate
    • -Strict isolation= airborne + contact + droplet
  27. Weekly Report is called what?
    Mortality & Morbidity Weekly Report
  28. Sexually Transmitted Diseases:

    Syphilis
    (Treponema pallidum)

    causes?
    symptoms?
    diagnosis?
    treatment?
    etiology?
    • causes= gram - spirochete, no culture
    • symptoms=
    • Primary stage day 10 = genital chancre for a male & asymptomatic internal for a female
    • -this goes away after 4-6 weeks
    • -possible enlarged lymph nodes

    • Secondary 6-12 weeks=
    • fever, rash, sore, throat, malaise, anorexia

    • Tertiary Stage 10 years-
    • gumma

    diagnosis= presence of spirochetes in chancre for primary or in rash for secondary

    • treatment= Bicillin (long lasting benzathine penicillin)
    • etiology= STD, also vertical to congenital syphilis
    • -pre-natal screening mandatory
  29. Nongonococcal Urethritis (NGU)
    (Chlamydia trachomatis)

    causes?
    symptoms?
    pathogens?
    diagnosis?
    treatment?
    etiology?
    • causes= gram - rod, ATP parasite
    • symptoms= same but milder than gonorrhea
    • pathogens= intracellular
    • diagnosis- endocervical or urethral swab, urine
    • treatment= single dose of 1 gram of azithromycin orally
    • etiology= 2-3 times more common than gonorrhea
    • females that go undiagnosed can face fertility problems
    • -in 2009: 1,244,180 reported cases in USA
    • -LGV fever and lymphadenopathy caused by serotypes L1,L2,L3
  30. Lymphogranuloma venereum
    (Chlamydia trachomatis)

    causes?
    symptoms?
    pathogens?
    diagnosis?
    treatment?
    etiology?
    • causes= gram negative rod
    • symptoms= chancre, malaise, fever, chills,rash, inguinal lymphadenopathy (may rupture)
    • pathogens= invasive strains L1 L2 L3
    • diagnosis= gen prove for chlamydia trachomatis from pus draining in lymph node
    • treatment= tetracycline, erthromycin and sulfamethoxazole
    • etiology= rare in USA usually found in tropic and subtropic areas
  31. Chancroid
    (Hemophilus ducreyi)

    causes?
    symptoms?
    pathogens?
    diagnosis?
    treatment?
    etiology?
    • causes= gram negative rod
    • symptoms= painful soft chancre 2-5 days after exposure
    • pathogens= exotoxin
    • diagnosis= immunochromatography PCR
    • treatment= Azithromycin, ceftriaxone
    • etiology= tropical and subtropical cases
  32. Urinary Tract Infections & STDS:

    Anatomy of Urinary Tract.
    urethra>bladder>ureter>kidney>SEPTICEMIA
  33. Urinary Tract Infections & STDS:

    UTI
    (E.coli)

    causes?
    symptoms?
    pathogens?
    diagnosis?
    treatment?
    etiology?
    • causes= other gram negatives from GI tract
    • -Staphylococcus, entertoccocis faecalis, candida albicans
    • symptoms=
    • uncomplicated: dysuria, urgency and frequency, pyruria
    • complicated= toxemia, kidney stones
    • pathogens= community acquired is ascending aided by motility and fimbriae
    • urethritis>cystitis>pyelonephritis>septicemia>shock
    • pathogens=nosocomially acquired via urinary catheter
    • diagnosis= clean catch uringe speciman, culture , ID
    • treatment= TMP SMZ, fluoroquinilone for E.coli
    • etiology= normal flora,
    • risk factors= birth control, pregnancy, sex

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