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This is the study of how living things interact with their environment and each other
This is where a plant or animal lives eg. woodland, hedgerow or a pond
What is a population?
This is a group of organisms of the same species living in the same habitat
What is a community?
This is all of the different populations that live in a habitat
What is an ecosystem?
This is all the communities in a habitat interacting with each other and with their environment eg. grassland and seashore
What is a biome?
This is an ecosystem that extends over a very large area eg. rainforest or desert
What is a biosphere?
This is all of the Earth's ecosystems together to form one large ecosystem
List two factors that affect the plants and animals living in a habitat
1. Abiotic (non-living) eg. temperature and the type of landscape
2. Biotic (living) eg. competition, predation and symbiosis
What is a producer? Give an example
A producer is a plant that makes their own food eg. grass
What is a consumer? Give an example
A consumer is an animal that gets its food by eating plants and animals eg. rabbit
List four types of consumers found in a typical habitat and give an example of each
Herbivores are animals that eat plants only eg. rabbits
Carnivores are animals that eat animals only eg. hawks
Omnivores are animals that eat both plants and animals eg. foxes
Decomposers feed on dead plants and animals eg. earthworms
What is a food chain?
This is a list of living things that feed on each other
State an example of a food chain from a habitat that you have studied
Grass - Rabbit - Fox
What is meant by a food web?
A food web consists of two or more interconnected food chains
Adaptation is a structure that living things have which enable them to survive in their environment eg. a grasshopper is the same colour as grass for camouflage
Give an example of adaptation from a habitat that you have studied
1. Grasshoppers are the same colour as grass for camouflage
2. A nettle stings to prevent it being eaten by grazing animals
3. Sunflowers can turn to follow the movement of the Sun in order to maximise photosynthesis
Explain competition in relation to ecology
Competition occurs when two or more organisms require something that is in short supply eg. food, space, oxygen, water, light and mates
Give an example of competition from a habitat that you have studied
1. Grass and weeds compete for space and light in a garden
2. Foxes compete with each other for food
State the importance of predation
This controls the number of organisms in an ecosystem
What is a predator?
This catches, kills and eats the prey
What is prey?
This is the organism being hunted
What is symbiosis?
This is a relationship between two different species where at least one benefits
Give an example of symbiosis from a habitat that you have studied
The cleaner fish eat parasites out of the mouths of Moray eels, meaning the eel is kept healthy and the cleaner fish gets food. As a result, the eel will not eat the fish
What is interdependence?
Interdependence means that living things depend on each other for survival
Give an example of interdependence from a habitat that you have studied
Bees collect pollen from the flower for food and then transfers the pollen to a different flower so that fertilisation can take place
What is a niche?
This describes the role of an organism within a habitat
List the environmental factors that can be measured in a habitat
How are animals collected in a habitat?
How can you estimate the number of plants in a habitat?