Microbiology

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Author:
blakers98
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150745
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Microbiology
Updated:
2012-12-04 17:28:41
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Microbiology study guide
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Study guide- old exam part of guide
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  1. Apperance of gram positive vs. gram negatives after the gram stain:

    Gram positive=?
    Gram negative=?
    gram positive= purpel

    gram negative= pink-red
  2. Components of gram-postivie cell walls & gram negative cell walls?
    • Gram positive=
    • -peptidoglycan & teichoic acids

    • Gram negative=
    • - petidoglycan
    • -lipoproteins, phospholipds
    • -Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)
    • -Lipid A (endotoxin) & O polysaccharide
  3. Gram postive & Gram negative cell walls both contain?
    Peptidoglycan
  4. Define competitve & noncompetitive inhibition.
    • Competitive inhibition=
    • inhibitor binds to active site

    • Noncompetitive inhibtion=
    • inhibtor binds somewhere else bsides the active site, changing conformation of active site
  5. Stages of the bacterial growth curve & what is going on in each stage?
    • 1) Lag= bacteria adjusting to medium, active enzymatically
    • 2) Log (exponential) = most active growth
    • 3)Stationary= # of growing organisms equals the # of dying organisms
    • 4)Death= wastes build up, nutrients spent, most cells dying
  6. Best Sterilization Procedures for Different Types of Materials:

    -Autoclaving?
    -Ethylene oxide sterilization?
    -Disinfectants?
    • Autoclaving=
    • for glass, anything that can withstand pressure, moisture, & temperature

    • Ethlyene oxide sterilization=
    • for plastics, sutures, stuff that would melt or can't stand pressure

    • Disinfectants=
    • QUATS:
    • -NH core structure,
    • -organic matter & soap neutolize
    • Glutaraldehyde:
    • -Disinfectant > 10 minutes
    • -Sterilizer> 3-10 hours
  7. Define conjugation.
    The transfer of plasmit F+ cell to F- cell. Involves cell to cell contact.
  8. Define transformation.
    The transfer of the naked DNA.
  9. Define transduction.
    The transfer of DNA with help of a bacteriophage (bacterial virus)
  10. Important Aspects of the Lac Operon:

    Function of the repressor?
    block the ability of RNA polymerase to intiate transcription of genes
  11. Important Aspects of the Lac Operon:

    Function of the inducer?
    induces transcription by binding to repressor and preventing it from binding to operator region
  12. Important Aspects of the Lac Operon:

    What the inducer is?
    Allolactose
  13. Important Aspects of the Lac Operon:

    What occurs at the promoter region?
    where RNA polymerase interacts and initiates transcription
  14. Important Aspects of the Lac Operon:

    What occurs at the operator region?
    where repressor sits in absense of inducer, stop-go signal
  15. Enzymes used in biotechnology:

    Define restriction enzyme (endonuclease).
    enzyme that cuts DNA at a particular nucleoside base sequence
  16. Enzymes used in biotechnology:

    Define reverse transcriptase.
    enzyme that synthesizes DNA from RNA
  17. Enzymes used in biotechnology:

    Define DNA ligase.
    enzyme that forms tighe bonds between newly synthesized stands of DNA
  18. Enzymes used in biotechnology:

    Define Taq polymerase.
    enzyme used in PCR; synthesizes DNA based on the template it is using
  19. Biotech technologies:

    Define PCR.
    amplifies single gene into many copies
  20. Biotech technologies:

    Define Western blot.
    separates protiens in a sample by size using electrical field and then detects cetain proteins with antibodies
  21. Biotech technologies:

    Define DNA fingerprinting.
    cuts a large piece of DNA into smaller pieces with enymes and separates them by size using an electrical field; generates RFLPs
  22. Metabolic Properties of Organisms:

    Photoautotroph?
    light (E) & CO2 (C)
  23. Metabolic Properties of Organisms:

    Photoheterotroph?
    light (E) & organic compounds (C)
  24. Metabolic Properties of Organisms:

    Chemoautotroph?
    inorganic ompounds (E) & CO2 (C)
  25. Metabolic Properties of Organisms:

    Chemoheterotroph?
    organic compounds (E) and (C)
  26. Exotoxin vs. Endotoxin:

    Describe an Exotoxin.
    • -made by bacteria & secreted
    • -usually associated with gram positive organisms
    • -some gram negatives also make
  27. Exotoxin vs. Endotoxin:

    Describe am Endotoxin.
    • -part of cell wall of all gram negative bacteria
    • -Lipid A
  28. Modes of action of antibiotics:

    Quinolones (ciproflaxin):?
    inhibit DNA gyrase
  29. Modes of action of antibiotics:

    Aminoglycosides (gentamicin)?
    inhibit protein synthesis (prevents t-RNA from binding to 30S ribosome subunit); synergy with Beta lactams
  30. Modes of action of antibiotics:

    Tetracyclines?
    inhibit protein synthesis (prevents t-RNA from binding to 30S ribosome subunit)
  31. Modes of action of antibiotics:

    Erythomycin?
    inhibit protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosome subunit
  32. Modes of action of antibiotics:

    Cephalosporins?
    inhibit cell wall synthesis
  33. Specific Treatments:

    Acyclovir?
    herpes infections
  34. Specific Treatments:

    Azoles?
    fungal infections
  35. Specific Treatments:
    Specific Drug Regimens for STDS:

    Genital herpes?
    acyclovir or its derivatives
  36. Specific Treatments:
    Specific Drug Regimens for STDS:

    Syphilis?
    benzathine penicllin, IM
  37. Specific Treatments:
    Specific Drug Regimens for STDS:

    Chlamydia?
    azithromycin orally
  38. Specific Treatments:
    Specific Drug Regimens for STDS:

    Gonorrhea?
    ceftriaxone, IM
  39. Specific Treatments:
    Specific Drug Regimens for STDS:

    HIV?
    HAART
  40. Specific therapy for diarrhea?
    rehydration
  41. Cells of immune system & their functions and characteristics:

    Neutrophil?
    first cell to respond to an infectious agent
  42. Cells of immune system & their functions and characteristics:

    B cell?
    principle cell of specific humoral immune response, becomes plasma cell & produces antibodies
  43. Cells of immune system & their functions and characteristics:

    T-helper cell?
    CD4+ T cell, produces cytokines that tell otehr cells what to do
  44. Cells of immune system & their functions and characteristics:

    Cytotoxic T cell?
    CD8+T cell, CTL, kills infected or abnormal cells
  45. Classes of antibodies and characterisitcs of the class:

    IgM?
    first class produced in response to an extracellular antigen
  46. Classes of antibodies and characterisitcs of the class:

    IgG?
    most abundant class in serum, crosses the placenta
  47. Classes of antibodies and characterisitcs of the class:

    IgA?
    associated with secretory fluids (tears, saliva, breast milk, mucus) and mucous membranes
  48. Classes of antibodies and characterisitcs of the class:

    IgD?
    receptor on B cell
  49. Classes of antibodies and characterisitcs of the class:

    IgE?
    associated with allergies, helminth infections
  50. Classes of antibodies and characterisitcs of the class:

    Name them.
    • -IgM
    • -IgG
    • -IgA
    • -IgD
    • -IgE
  51. Cytokines mentioned in class & their effects on the body:

    Interleukin-1?
    causes fever
  52. Cytokines mentioned in class & their effects on the body:

    Tumor Necrosis Factor- alpha? (TNF-alpha)
    increases permeability of blood vessels, can make blood pressure drop
  53. Cytokines mentioned in class & their effects on the body:

    Interferons (IFN)?
    interfere with viral replication
  54. Oncogenic Viruses:

    Name them. (3)
    • -Epstein-Barr Virus
    • -Hepatitis B virus
    • -Human Papilloma Virus
  55. What diseases overall are caused by exotoxins?
    • -Tetanus
    • -Botulism
    • -Anthrax
    • -Gas gangrene
    • -Bubonic plague
    • -Diptheria
    • -Petussis
    • -S. aureus food poisoning
    • -Escherichia coli
    • -Cholera
    • -Pseudomembranous colitis
    • -C. perfringens food poisoning
    • -Shigellosis
  56. Diseases Associated with Animals:
    • -Brucellosis (cows)
    • -Anthrax (cows, sheep, goat)
    • -Toxoplasmosis (cats)
    • -Tularemia (rabbits)
    • -Bubonic plague (prarire dogs, squirrels)
    • -Rabies (any mammal)
    • -Histoplasmosis (bats, birds)
    • -Cryptococcal meningitis (birds)
    • -Salmonellosis (poultry, reptiles)
    • -Lassa Fever (rodents)
  57. What types of specimans are required for diagnosis of the following?

    -Meningitis?
    -Septicemia?
    -URT?
    -LRT?
    -GI?
    -STDs?
    -UTI?
    • -Meningitis= CSF
    • -Septicemia= blood
    • -URT= throat swab
    • -LRT= usually sputum
    • -GI= feces
    • -STDs= semen, endocervical swab
    • -UTI= urine
  58. How different organisms are transmitted:

    What's transmitted via blood?
    HIV,HBV,HCV
  59. How different organisms are transmitted:

    What's transmitted via sexual intercourse?
    HIV, gonorrhea, genital warts, syphilis, genital herpes, chlamydia, HBV, HCV, trichomonas
  60. How different organisms are transmitted:

    What's transmitted via fecal oral route?
    most GI infections, polio virus, Hepatitis A
  61. How different organisms are transmitted:

    What's transmitted via URT?
    most respiratory infections, measles, smallpox, rubella, most causes of meningitis
  62. How different organisms are transmitted:

    What's transmitted via saliva?
    Herpes Simplex Virus 1, Mumps, EBV
  63. How different organisms are transmitted:

    What's transmitted via direct contact?
    dermatophytes
  64. How different organisms are transmitted:

    What's transmitted via arthropod-borne?
    • -St. Louis encephalitis
    • -West Nile Fever
    • -African Sleeping Sickness
    • -tularemia
    • -bubonic plague
    • -Lyme disease
    • -RMSF
    • -yellow fever
    • -dengue fever
    • -malaria
    • -Chagas disease
    • (know specific insect)
  65. Vaccines: Know what diseases have vaccines to prevent them.
    • -Smallpox
    • -Chickenpox
    • -Measles
    • -Rabies
    • -Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis
    • -Polio
    • -Hemophilus influenza b
    • -Streptococcus pneumoniae
    • -Tuberculosis
    • -Influenza
    • -Hepatitis B
    • -Meningococcal meningitis
    • -HPV
    • -Anthrax
    • -Typhoid fever
  66. Vaccines: Name the vaccine to prevent the following diseases?

    -Smallpox
    -Chickenpox
    -Rabies
    -Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis
    -Polio
    -Hemophilius influenza b
    • -Smallpox= Vaccinia
    • -Chickenpox= Varivax
    • -Measles= MMR
    • -Rabies=HDCV
    • -Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis= DTaP, ACELIMUNE(pertussis)
    • -Polio= Sabin
    • -Hemophilius influenza b= HibTITER
  67. Vaccines: Name the vaccines to prevent the following diseases?

    -Streptococcus pneumonaiae
    -Tuberculosis
    -Influenza
    -Hepatitis B
    -Meningococcal meningitis
    -HPV
    -Anthrax
    -Typhoid fever
    • -Streptococcus pneumonaiae=Pneumovax
    • -Tuberculosis= BCG
    • -Influenza= changes yearly
    • -Hepatitis B= recombinant vaccine ( Energix B, Recombivax HB)
    • -Meningococcal menigingitis= Menactra
    • -HPV= Gardasil
    • -Anthrax= Bacilus anthracis
    • -Typhoid fever= live attenuated Salmonella typhi
  68. What are the signs/symptoms associated with the following infection?

    -Pharyngitis
    sore and inflamed throat
  69. What are the signs/symptoms associated with the following infection?

    -Meningitis
    stiff neck,fever, headache, photophobia
  70. What are the signs/symptoms associated with the following infection?

    -Cystitis
    dysuria, frequency and urgency in urination, pyuria
  71. What are the signs/symptoms associated with the following infection?

    -Hepatitis
    jaundice
  72. What are the signs/symptoms associated with the following infection?

    -Otitis media
    bulging eardrum
  73. What are the signs/symptoms associated with the following infection?

    -Pneumonia
    dull to percussion, fluid in lungs
  74. Name the subunit vaccines.
    • -DTaP
    • -Pneumovax
    • -Energex B
    • -HibTITER
  75. Name the inactivated vaccines.
    • -Vaccina
    • -HDCV
    • -Salk
    • -Rubateq
  76. Name the attenuated vaccines.
    • -Varivax
    • -MMR
    • -Sabin
    • -BCG

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