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- The system that sends signals throughout the body, commanding it.
- Made up of the brain, spinal cord and neurons.
- The cell body of neurons.
- Contain ribosomes, nucleus, mitochondria etc.
- Anything that sticks off something else.
- An Axon is a process of a soma in neurons.
- The parts of neurons where an impulse comes through.
- The Dendrite receives the impulse.
The part of the neuron where the impulse is trasmitted out of the neuron.
- Differen on one side of the membrane than the other.
- The neuron is polarized while resting.
The inside of the neuron is negatively charged compared to the outside.
Resting membrane potential
- The resting membrane potential for most cells is -70mv.
- While the cell is in resting membrane potential it is more negative inside than outside.
- (Na+/K+ ATPase)
- Uses a molecule of ATP to move 3 sodium ions out of the cell, and two potassium in.
- 3 Na+<----> 2 K+
- Inside <--------> outside
A way that ions can go back across a membrane.
- The specific potassium channels used for the
- (Na+/K+ ATPase) pump.
- Allows potassium to leak out of the cell.
- Channels that open when the cell membrane reaches its threshold potential.
- For the most part, these open when the cell reaches -50mv.
- The voltage level at which, a voltage-gated channel will open.
- Generally it is -50mv.
Sodium voltage-gated channels
Activated at -50mv, it pumps more sodium into the cell, and close at +35mv.
Potassium voltage-gated channels
- Open at +35mv and floods potassiums out of the cell.
- The channel closes at -90v and the potasium leak channels bring the cell back up to -70mv.
- The membrane potential moves in a positive direction.
- (Sodium is being oumped out)
- The membrane potential returns to its resting value.
- (potassium is pumped in, and then leaked out until resting value is reached).
Cells resting on the axon of a nerve cell, increasing the speed at which an impulse can travel down the axon.
- Cells resting on the axon of a nerve cell, increasing the speed at which an impulse can travel down the axon.
- Schwann cells.
Nodes of Ranvier
The spcaes in between Schwann cells.
- The condection where impulses travel down schwann cells, to go extremely fast.
The period after a portion where an axon is at action potential, where it regains its resting voltage.
- A junction between neurons.
- Neurotansmitters send signals to recptors.
- Axon------> dendrite.
The chemical used to transmitte impulses from one neuron to the next.
The most common neurotransmitter in the body.
The gap between two neurons.
Depolarized toward the threshold.
Moveing away from the threshold.
If there are more inhibitory inputs than stimilatory, the cell will not fir an action potential.
Central Nervous System (CNS)
- The Brain and Spinal cord.
- Made of interneurons, that often connect sensory and motor neurons.
Peripheral Nervous System. (PNS).
- Any neurons outside the brain and spinal cord.
- Made of sensory neurons, that are involved in sending information to the CNS from the sensory organs.AND Motor neurons, that are involved in sending information the the CNS from the organs of the body, such as muslces, and glands.
- That are involved in sending information to the CNS from the sensory organs.
- IN THE PNS
- Involved in sending information the the CNS from the organs of the body, such as muslces, and glands.
- IN THE PNS
- Often connect sensory and motor neurons.
- These are completely within the brain and spinal cord.
Involved in primitivice reflex actions.
Cerebrum (Cerebral cortex)
- The cerebrum is our conscious mind.
- This is where voluntray actions, such as, movement, speech, and problem solving, occur.
- This is where we have conscious awarenes of sensations, such as smells, sights, hot, and cold.
- The cerebellum coordinates muscle movement and balance.
- It makes movement smooth and coordinated.
- Involuntary actions origiante here.
- Breathing and blood pressure regulation occur in the medulla.
- This is a relatively primative region.
- The hypothalamus maintains body homeostasis.
- It monitors hormone levels, ekectrolyte balance, and temperature.
- Controls the pituitary gland.
- For every pituitary gland hormone, there is a release hormone produced by the Hypothalamus.
Somatic nervous system.
- Part of the PNS.
- The voluntary system, it uses ACh to stimulate skelatal muscle, the only organs we control.
Autonomic nervous system. (ANS)
- Part of the PNS.
- This is the involuntary system, in controls organs without conscious thought.
- Divided further into the Sympathecitc, and Parasympathetcic divisions.
- Known as the "fight or flight" system. Part of the ANS.
- This prepares the body for stress situations, by raising heart rate, and increasing blood pressure and breath rate.
- Blood goes away from digestive organs, and towarads skelatal muscles.
- The primary neurotransmitter used here is norepinephrine.
- Known as the "resting and digesting" system. Part of the ANS.
- This system is most active when the body is at rest.
- Decreases blood pressure, heart rate, breatg rate and diverts blood flow toward the digestive system.
- Uses ACh as its primary neurotransmitter.
- The primary neurotansmitter used by the sympathetic division.
- Used during stress situations.
Arthropods and annelids, are made up of ganglia along the nerve cord, and neurons attached to the ganglia.
- A control system of the body that acts using hormones.
- It is much slower than the nervous system.
Chemicals made by glands then secreted into the bloodstream.
- Amino acid based hormones.
- They must bind to receptors because they are hydrophobic.
- Cholesterol based hormones.
- Bind with receptors inside cells.
- They work by changing which genes get transcribed in DNA.
- The master endocrine organ.
- Consists of the anterior pituitary gland, and the posterior pituitary gland.
Anterior pituitary gland
- Secretes 6 hormones.
- Growth Hormone (GH)
- Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
- Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
- Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
- Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
Growth Hormone (GH)
- This hormone targets all the tissues and organs in the body and cause them to grow.
- It can stimulate the cell-turnover rate.
- (The rate at which older cells are replaced by new cells.)
The rate at which older cells are replaced by new cells
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
It Stimulates the thyroid to secrete thyroid hormones.
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
Stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete its hormones.
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
- Targets the gonads.
- In females- causes the ovaries to mature ova and release estrogen.
- In males- Causes the testes to make sperm.
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
- Targets the gonads.
- In females- causes ovaries to develope the corpus luteum.
- In males- causes testes to produce testosterone.
- Stimulates the mammary glands to make breast milk.
- Only active after a female gives birth.
Posterior Pituitary Gland
- Stores and secretes 2 hormones.
- Antidiurectic hormone (ADH)
This hormone causes the utererus to contract during childbirth, and makes the mammary glands release milk during breastfeeding.
Antidiurectic hormone (ADH)
- Causes the kidneys to retain water.
- Also known as vasopressin.
- Causes the kidneys to retain water.
- Also known as Antidiurectic hormone (ADH)
- Produced by the thyroid.
- Makes the body cells increase their rate of metabolism.
- Contains iodine.
- If a person dosn't cosume enough iodine, they can develop hypothyroidism.
- Produced by the thyroid.
- Takes calcium from blood, and uses it to make new bone.
- Lowers blood calcium level.
Parathyroid hormone (Parathormone)
- Increases blood calcium levels.
- Takes calsium out of bones, and puts into blood.
- Glands on top of the kidney.
- Composed of the adrenal medulla (inner), and the adrenal cortex (outer).
- The inner part of the andrenal gland.
- Secretes epinephrine-adrenaline,
- and norepinephrine- noradrenaline.
- THEY HAVE THE SAME EFFECT.Adrenaline just lasts longer.
- The outer part of the adrenal gland.
- Produces 3 tyoes of steroids.
- Sex Steroids
- They target the liver, so the liver produces glucose from fats and proteins. -Gluconeogenesis.
- They primarily cause an increase in blood glucose levels.
Glucocoticoids target the liver and the liver produces glucose from fats and proteins.
- Targets the kidney.
- Main mineralocorticoid is aldosterone.
- Causes the kidney to retain water and sodium.
- It's a mineralocorticoid.
- Produced primarily by the gonads.
- most important are:
- Male- testosterone.
- Female- Estrogen/Estradiol and progesterone.
- Some produced by the adrenal cortex.
- Secretes, hormones, and digestive enzymes.
- Hormones are:
- Also called "Isletes of Langerhans"
- Found in the pancreas, they produce Insulin and Glucagon.
- Stimulates blood glucose to go into cells.
- Lowers blood glucose levels.
- Stimulates the liver to store glucose as glycogen.
- Produced the panceas.
- Cause the liver to break down glycogen and release free glucose into the blood. This is glycogenolysis.
- Raises blood glucose levels.
liver breaks down glycogen and releases free glucose into the blood
- The male and female primary sex organs.
- Produce androgens
- Testosterone is the primary androgen.
- Produce estrogens and progesterone.
- Estradiol is the main estrogen produced.
The name for blood in organisms that do not have blood vessels.
- Makes up 50% of human blood.
- It is mostly water.
- Has disolved materials in it.
Red blood cells
- Makes up 45% of human blood.
- Filled with the protein hemoglobin.
- No nucleus or organells.
- Carries oxygen.
- Made partly of iron.
- A person needs enough iron in their diet, so their blood can carry oxygen.
When a person's blood cells can't carry enough oxygen for cellular respiration.
White blood cells
- Along with platelets, make up 5% of human blood.
- Most are phagocytes, that eat viruses, bacteria, and other things that are bad for the body.
- Some are lymphocytes, which are part of the immunity diesease defense.
Make antibodies, so foreign substances are marked for destruction.
- Helper T-cells help other T and B cells.
- Killer T-cells kill cells that have been infected by viruses.
- Human Immunodeficiency Virus
- Kills helper T-cells
- Platelets secrete a substance that activates a chain of events that converts fibrinogen into fibrin.
- Basically it clots the blood.
Where blood cells are made.
In a heterozygote, if both alleles are present, both alleles are prevalent.
- If a person's body does not recognize the proteins on the newly received red blood cells, the newly received blood cells wil clump up and be destroyed.
- Can be fatal for the person getting blood.
Someone with AB blood can receive any blood because their blood recognizes both proteins.
Someone with O blood can donate blood to anyone because their blood lacks the specific proteins.
Carry blood from the heart to the body and back.
- A blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart.
- They divide into arterioles.
- Those divide into capillaries, which exchange between blood and tissues.
- The site of exchange between blood and tissues.
- Oxygen and nutrients leave the blood.
- Carbon dioxide and wastes enter the blood.
- Capellaries come together to form venules.
- Venules come together to form veins.
- Veins carry blood toward the heart.
- They have no musclular walls, they only have valves, to ensure blood flows in one direction.
- The filtering system that removes anything harmful from the blood.
- Contains Lymph nodes that fluid is filtered through.
- Lymphatic vessals contain the fluid lymph.
The fluid in lymph vessals that helps to filter blood.
Weaker smaller chambers on the top of the heart.
Two larger stronger chambers on the bottom of the heart
The right side of the heart pumps blood through this.
- Oxygen poor blood enters at the right atrium and goes out the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery then to the
- Lungs and then back to the LEFT atrium
Takes oxygen rich blood that's returning from the lungs and pumps it to the rest of the body from the aorta
Anterior and posterior vena cavas
- The two largest veins in the body.
- Oxygen poor blood enters the heart through these.
In the pulmonary circuit it takes blood from the right ventricle to the lungs.
Carries blood from the lungs to the left atrium.
The set of valves between the Altria an the ventricles
The valves between the ventricles and the arteries.
The process where the respiratory system moves air in and out of the lungs.
The respiratory system exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide with the blood.
- The place where the only thing that goes on is ventilation.
- It goes from the nose to the throat to the larynx to the trachea to one of two lungs.
- The windpipe
- It branches into two tubes each leading to a lung.
- These tubes are bronchi.
Right and left primary bronchi
Divisions of the trachea that gain divide in bronchioles.
- The bubbles in the bronchioles where gas exchange takes place.
- They are connected to
- The primary muscle of breathing.
- While relaxed it curves up under the lungs.
- While contracting it flattens out and increases the Chet cavity size.
The chest cavity increases in size and air is taken in to fill the space in the lungs.
The diaphragm is relaxed and the lungs pressure forces out air.
- The long muscular tube that begins at the mouth and ends at the anus.
- Small intestine
- Large intestine/colon
Not part p the alimentary canal but it helps in digestion somehow.
The muscle contractions that pushes foo down the alimentary canal.
Ingestion occurs here and the tongue and teeth form a boius of the food.
The intake of food
A lump of food formed to be digested.
Secretes saliva which moistens food and form the Bolus
A digestive enzyme in saliva.
- It's acidic because it secretes hydrochloric acid.
- It also secretes pepsin, the enzyme that helps digestive proteins.
- It is lined with mucus to protect from its acid.
The enzyme on the stomach that digests protein.
The inactive form of pepsin.
Develop in the stomach if here isn't enough mucus.
Food after it leaves the stomach is a pile of mush.
- The site of the most digestion and absorption in the body.
- Bile from the liver and gallbladder along with pancreatic enzymes digest food.
- Produced in the liver and stored and concentrated in the gallbladder.
- It emulsifies fat.
- Released into the small intestine.
Stores and concentrates bile.
- An enzyme produced by the pancreas.
- Breaks down fat.
A base that the pancreas secretes to neutralize the acidic environment.
Capillaries from the intestines merge into these and then they divide again and they reach the liver.
Hepatic portal system
The system of portal veins and capillaries that deliver nutrients from the intestines to the liver.
- Also called the colon.
- No further digestion occurs but water is extracted from the chyme and all that is left is feces.
- E. coli. bacteria here produces vitamin K for blood clotting.
The unusable solid waste produced after water is extracted from the chyme in the colon.
- Not harmful.
- E. Coli. are nonpathogenic bacteria.
Needed to make retinal, a chemical necessary for sight.
- Has many forms (B1, B12 etc.)
- Needed for cellular respiration and DNA replication.
Deficent=skin disorders, mental confusion, anemia.
Needed to make collagen (fiber in connective tissue).
Deficient=wounds won't heal, scurvy
Needed for calcium absorbtion.
Deficient=weak bones and teeth, rickets.
Needed to protect cell membranes from damage.
Needed for blood clotting
Deficient=easily bruised, excessive bleeding.
Needed in hemoglobin.
Needed for strong bones and teeth, also for muscle contraction.
Deficient=rickets in children, osteomalacia in adults.
Needed to make thyroxine
- Waste products are filtered from the blood here, and urine is produced to remove the waste.
- Kidneys contain about one million nephrons, the functional units of a kidney.
- Blood goes in the Afferent arteriole to the Bowman's capsule then thrgouh the proximal convulted tubule and the loop of Henle, Then out the Distal convoluted tuble to the collecting duct.
- The waste product that the kidneys make .
- Consists of Urea, uric acid, and creatinine.
Broken down amino acids in urine.
Broken down nucleic acids in urine.
A waste product from muscle metabolism, found in urine.
The functional units of the kidney.
The capillaries at the beginning of the nephron, inside of the Bowman's capsule.
- A filtrate in the begining of the kidney's nephrons.
- It houses the glomerulus, and blood plasma goes through it.
- Cells and proteins are too large and they are left in the capillaries.
- Something that dose the filtering.
- Ie. the Bowman's capsule in the kidneys.
The process in the kidney where blood pressure forces plasma only, into the Bowman's capsule.
- The process where substances are taken out of the filtrate, and returned to the blood.
- Normally glucose and amino acids are always reabsorbed, but most other materials, such as water are regulated.
- The process of taking substances out of the blood and adding them to the filtrate.
- Creatinine is always secreted.
- Some drugs and toxins are also always secreted.
Proximal convoluted tuble
- This is the first portion in the nephron after the Bowman's Capsule.
- Reabosorbtion and secretion take place here.
Loop of Henle
- After the proximal convoluted tuble is this.
- A lot of water is reabsorbed here.
- Salt is transported out of the filtrate and into the kidney tissues deeper in the kidney at the medulla.
- This helps to improve water reabsorbtion.
Distal convoluted tuble
- This comes after the Loop of Henle.
- Some reabsorbtion and secretion occur here.
- The filtrate is modified here by aldosterone
- The aldosterone increases the amount of sodium that's reabsorbed into the blood.
- Water follows the sodium, so water is reabsorbed.
- Receives filtrate from several nephrons.
- ADH has its effect here, it causes the walls of the duct to become permeable to water, so water can leave to go to the blood.
- This causes the urine to become more concentrated.
- While dehydrated ADH levels are high.
- Kidneys release this enzyme into the blood to regulate blood pressure.
- It causes the production of angiotensin II.
- Angiotensin II causes the blood vessals throughout the body to constrict, and this rises blood pressure.
Angiotensin II causes the blood vessals throughout the body to constrict, and this rises blood pressure.
- A skeleton that is located inside an organisms' body.
- All vertebrates have endoskeletons.
- Skeletons are found outside of the body.
- Arthropods have exoskeletons.
- Rigid substance made of cells in a calcium-phosphate matrix.
- Supports the body, protects soft organs, produces blood cells, and stores minerals.
- Relitavely rigid, but more flexible than bone.
- Provides flexibility with support.
- The material that joins bones.
- There are multiple ligaments at a joint.
- Found only in the heart.
- It is involuntary muscle, and it is self-excitatory, it can stimulate its own contraction.
- Found in the walls of hollow organs such as the stomach, intestine and bladder.
- Smooth muscle is involuntary muscle.
- The muscle that is attached to bones.
- They are voluntary muscle and they move the body.
- They are very long cells that are multinucleate.
- One of two main proteins that make up muscle.
- Actin is attached to Z-lines and extends inward toward the center of the sarcomere.
- One of two main proteins that make up muscle.
- Myosin is found beyweem the actin filaments, overlapping with the ends, but not touching the Z-lines.
- During muscle contraction myosin binds to actin and drags it inward.
Actin and myosin arranged in a structure.
A string of sarcomeres in a muscle cell.
- Many myofibrils along with cytoplasm, organelles, a cell membrane, and nuclei.
- Also called a muscle fiber.
Muscle cells organized into groups.
- Fasicles grouped together.
- Actin and myosin-->sarcomere-->myofibril-->muscle cell-->Fasicle-->Muscle
- The ends of sarcomeres.
- Actin is attached to these, and they are used in muscle contraction.
Sliding filament theory
The process of contracting where the filaments apear to slide over eachother.
Skelatal muscle is striated-striped.
- The thing layer of cells at the surface.
- Consists of many dead skin cells.
- The relatively thick layer of connective tissue in between epidermis and hypodermis.
- Contains blood vessels, nerves, hair follicles, and glands.
- The deep layer of fat the protects and insulates the body.
- Varying thickness from person to person.
- The regulation of body temperature control, a funtion of the skin.
- In humans, the blood vessels in the dermis respond to changes in heat, sweating is regulated, and shivering may be initiated in cold.
Organisms that cannot regulate their body temperaturwe.
- Organisms that cannot regulate their body temperaturwe.
Organisms that cannot regulate their body temperaturwe.(Cold-blooded)
An organism that can regulate its body temperature by expending energy.
- An organism that can regulate its body temperature by expending energy.
Produced by the testes, after LH is sent, it is important for sperm development, and it matures the sex organs through puberty.
- Sperm is produce inside the testes in these tubles, in response to FSH.
- They merge to form the vas deferens.
- The seminiferous tubles meet to form this.
- It connects with the urethra, and several glands along the way secrete semen, which carries, and provides nutriets for the sperm.
- Sustains a pregnancy.
- Changes through the uterine cycle.
- The uterus is controlled by estrogen and progesterone, produced by the ovaries.
- Mestruation---Proliferative phase--- Secretory phase
- Day 1--------5 -----------------------14 -------------------28
- Low hormones--Estrogen high-------progesterone high---
- The shedding of the old uterine linin, the endometrium.
- Estrogen and progesterone levels are low during this phase.
The old uterine lining that is shed in menstruation.
- During this phase a new uterine lining is built.
- This is under the control of estrogen.
- This last from day 6 to 13.
- The new uterine lining is maintained and enhanced in preparation for a possible pregnancy.
- New blood vessels are added and glucose and glycogen are secreted to make the ling nourishing.
- Under the control of progesterone.
- When progesterone levels fall the cycle restarts.
- Has 3 phases.
- ---------Follicular phase------- ovulation-luteal phase---
- Day 1--------5 -----------------------14 -------------------28
- --------------FSH---------------LH Surge----LH control-
- FSH causes the development of a follicle in the ovary.
- Estrogen is secreted and levels rise effecting the uterus.
A follicle is a maturing oocyte, and its surrounding cell.
- The release of the oocyte form the follicle into the fallopian tube. (also called the uterine tube.)
- It occurs around day 14 because of a LH surge.
- After Ovulation some of the follicle stays behind and matures into the corpus luteum.
- It stays for about 2 weeks then it degenerates lowering the progesterone and estrogen levels.
- The corpus luteum secretes progesterone and some estrogen.
- After 2 weeks it degenerates lowering the progesterone and estrogen levels.
- When this happens the uterine lining is shed and the cycle restarts.
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
- hCG is secreted by the embryo which is made made if the released ovum is fertilized and implanted in the uterine lining.
- hCG prolongs the life of the corpus luteum resulting in more progesterone and estrogen and no shedding of the uterine lining.
- The sperm and ovum.
- They are haploid cells.
The egg, travels down the fallopian tube and is fertilized by a sperm cell.
The top of the sperm containing a digestive enzyme that allows it to penetrate the ovum.
The diploid fusion of egg and sperm.
The zygote undergoes cleavge and divides until it becomes a solid ball of cells, the morula.
- The morula continues to divide, and it hollows out resulting in the blastocyst.
- The inner cell mass of the blastocyst becomes the embryo and embryonic structures.
- The outer ring forms part of the placenta.
- Once the blastocyst implants itself it is in the embryonic stage for 8 weeks.
- Divided into gastulation, and Neurulation.
- The inner mass divides into three layers called primary germ layers.
- They are the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm.
- Becomes the inner linings of the respitory, digestive system, reproductive system, and urinary system.
- Forms glandular organs.
Becomes bones, blood vessels, muscles, the heart, and non glandular organs.
forms skin, hair, nails, mouth and anal linings and nervous system structures.
The nervous system devlopes, as do the rest of the body's organs in organogenesis.
The fetal stage
- This stage leasts from the end of the embryonic stage to birth.
- The baby grows and matures.
- No new organs are formed.
- Surrounds the yolk of an egg.
- Egg yolk is essentially food for the embryo.
- Humans have little yolk because humans receive nutrients from the placenta.
- Human yolk forms blood cells.
- The clear membrane that surround the developing embryo .
- The fluid acts as a shock absorber.
In humans it eventually becomes the umbilical cord.
The outermost membrane, encloses all other membranes, and forms the embryo's part of the placenta.