Psychology: Human Relationships Option
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Distinguish between altruism and pro-social behavior
- Pro-social Behavior: behavior that benefits another person or has positive social
- consequences (Staub1978). Motivation
- is cause by selfishness. For example: giving donations, rescuing someone in danger, volunteering,
the performance of pro-social actions without expectation of benefit for oneself. Some argue that the goal of all human behavior is personal pleasure [psychological hedonism]. Personal benefit is not the motive to act, but rather a concern for the welfare of others despite the cost of acting. [Batson (1991) “a motivational state with the ultimate goal of increasing anothers welfare.]
: Personal Benefit
- -Altruism: Welfare of others
Contrast two theories explaining altruism in humans
Using one or more research studies, explain cross cultural differences in pro-social behavior.
Examine factors influencing bystandardism
Examine biological, psychological, and social orgins of attraction
Discuss the role of communication in maintaining relationships
Explain the role that culture plays in the formation and maintenance of relationships
- * most of the research in this area is focused on relationships within individualistic societies, however the growth of communities of ethnic minorities with different cultural values and the increase of studies focused on collectivist cultures has given a greater understanding of the role of culture in the formation and maintenance of relationships*
- some societies have cultures in which the young adults typically make their own choice in marriage partners, but some societies have arranged marriages.
- : (universal preferences exist in terms of attraction)
- Cultural Differences to Attraction
- -Buss (1990) in more traditional societies with clearly defined geneder roles, high chastity and home making skills are highly valued.
- -Yelsma and Athappilly (1988) Individualistic societies tend to value passion and romance more but little evidence to suggest marital satisfaction
- Limitations: -questionnaire based methodology -cognitive dissonance could affect responses -social norms could affect responses -cultural ideas of a good v. bad marriage
-Ahmad and Reid:
-Canary adn Dainton:
(2003) - Koreans try to anticipate what their partners want instead of asking using less direct and explicit maintenance behaviors. If a Korean person believes their partner is engaging in a long term obligatory assosiation, they will remain in the relationship.
Analyze why relationships may change or end
Evaluate sociocultural explainations of the orgins of violence
Discuss the effects of short-term and long-term exposure to violence
*focus on domestic violence*
increased levels of anxiety, depression, emotions (i.e. fear, anger, grief, shame, powerlessness), risk of suicide, risk-taking, truancy, early sexual activity, aggressive behavior and substance abuse.
- - problems in school, obedience, maintaining relationships
- - more lying and cheating in school
- Long-Term Effects:- Potential for boys to become abusers later in life
- - Increased likeliness that girls abused younger in life will tolderate abuse later in life.
- - Continuous depression (male and female) and low self-esteem from the female.
- - Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) - Roberts 2002
- -Rosenbaum and O'Leary: (1981) - on domestic violence research, male perpetrators are more likely to have come from homes that had a history of violence.
- *majority of this information is correlation studies it does not always follow that victims of violence will become perpetrators*
- Limitations: -data gathered from shelters (different types of violence and amount of violence) -removal from familiar surroundings may add trauma for children
Discuss the relative effectiveness of two strategies for reducing violence.
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