Patho Final

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Patho Final
2012-04-28 21:36:30
Organ Systems

7 chapters of review
Show Answers:

  1. Smallest anatomic division of the lung?
  2. Why are acute upper respiratory infections more common in cold weather?
    People are crowded together indoors and infect one another
  3. What happens to the pulmonary membrane in emphysema?
    Surface area of pulmonary membrane is decreased
  4. What causes adult respiratory distress syndrome?
    It can be caused by many different underlying conditions
  5. Which bronchogenic carcinoma is most agressive?
    Small cell carcinoma of the lung
  6. True of false? Alvelar pneumocytes are part of the pulmonary interstitium
  7. True or false? Obstruction of inhaled air is the main problem in obstructive lung disease
    False, exhaled air flow is slowed, FEV1 is reduced, but FVC remains the same
  8. True or false? Most interstitial pneumonia is caused by bacterial infection
    False, interstitial pneumonia is caused by viral infection, alveolar pneumonia is bacterial
  9. True or false? Most patients infected with mycobacterium tuberculosis develop primary progressive TB
    False, most patients infected with mycobacterium TB are affected by a secondary infection
  10. True or false? Adenocarcinoma is the most lethal type of lung cancer
    False, small cell carcinoma is much more agressive
  11. What is the action of type II pneumocytes
    secrete a soaplike surficant
  12. Atelectasis is
    collapsed lung
  13. Resorption atelectasis
    collapsed lung caused by obstruction
  14. Compression atelectasis
    Collapsed lung
  15. Contraction atelectasis
    Lung collapsed caused by scarring
  16. Types of obstructive lung disease
    Asthma and and COPD: ephymsema and chronic bronchitis
  17. Asthma
    narrow lumen containing large amounts of mucus; inflammatory cells present; increased number of mucus glands and smooth muscle cells
  18. Emphysema
    merging of alveoli into larger spaces; often caused by smoking
  19. Bronchiectasis
    destroyed smooth muscle, dilated, flaccid, pus-filled bronchial tubes, lower lobes, vertical airways
  20. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
    Unknown cause, immune involvement, collagen-vascular disease of slow onset, hits middlement most (nongranulomatous)
  21. Sarcoidosis
    unknown cause, mostly African-Americans, macrophage + lymphocyte accumulation, self-resolve or progressive fibrosis (granulomatous)
  22. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
    T-cells, delayed hypersensitivity reaction (type III slow onset autoimmune) allergic alveolitis, inhaled antigens like moldy hay, acute or chronic, depending on renewed exposure
  23. Restrictive lung disease
    interstitial fibrosis, causing marked thickening of many alveolar walls by dense, scar-like fibrous tissue
  24. Pulmonary edema
    Fluid in the alveoi
  25. Hemodynamic edema
    Left heart failure causes blood to back up which produces pressure in the vascular bed. Fluid then enters the alveoli
  26. Pulmonary thromboembolism
    Thrombus moves to the lung; most often arises in the deep veins of the leg and pelvis; eventually makes its way to the pulmonary artery, and if large enough can cause immediate death
  27. Pulmonary hypertension
    • Systolic pressure > 30 mm Hg or average pressure > 25 mm Hg
    • Average is 15 mm Hg
    • Most common cause is increased vascular resistance
  28. Secondary pulmonary hypertension
    due to COPD or interstitial lung disease, collagen vascular disease, or recurring thromboemboli
  29. Cor pulmonale
    Right ventricle is hypertrophic, dilated, failing... onionskin hyperplasia of pulmonary arteries in lugs
  30. Adult respiratory distress syndrome
    • edema accumulates in alveoli as a result of alveolar and pulmonary capillary damage and condenses into a thick protein membrane which coats alveolar walls
    • 50% mortality
  31. Bronchopneumonia
    Alveolar inflammation is widespread but patchy, leaving some alveoli unaffected
  32. Lobar pneumonia
    all alveoli in the lobe are involved by intense acute inflammation
  33. Tuberculosis
    • Nearly all cases are secondary
    • Primary TB causes caseous necrosis
  34. Histoplasmosis
    • Fungal infection of the lungs
    • found in the Ohio River and Mississippi River areas
    • Caused by inhaled bird droppings
    • TB-like sx (fever, cough, sputum, malaise)
  35. Candidiasis
    Bacteria common to healthy mouths, but problemmatic in AIDS
  36. Bronchogenic carcinoma
    • most common cancer in humans
    • 80-90% of smokers
    • Small cell type is VERY agressive
  37. The barrier function of the glomerulus prevents what from entering the glomerular filtrate?
  38. Azotemia is best described as
    • Nitrogen found in the blood, with no clinical symptoms
    • Only lab findings can diagnose
  39. Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis usually presents as
    Acute nephritic syndrome
  40. What is a cause of renovascular hypertension
  41. What is closely associated with chronic pyelonephritis?
    Urinary reflux and obstruction
  42. True or false? The innermost layer of the glomerulus is vascular endothelium
  43. True or false? Uremia is a syndrome of laboratory results only
    False, it comes with symptoms as well
  44. True or false? Acute glomerulonephritis is an autoimmune disease
  45. True or false? Urinary obstruction can cause renal damage without infection
  46. True or false? Transitional cell carcinomas are tumors of the renal tubular epithelium
    False, they are tumors of the renal pelvis
  47. Functions of the kidneys
    • Eliminate wase
    • Regulate plasma osmolality
    • Regulate blood acid-base balance
    • Stimulate red blood cell production
  48. Fluid must cross three layers of tissue in the Bowman space
    basement membrane, and visceral epithelial cells
  49. Urinary tract is more suscetible to virus or bacteria
    Bacterial infection
  50. Most primary glomerular disease is caused by
    Autoimmune reactions
  51. What is a common cause of kidney disease?
    High blood pressure
  52. Diuresis
    Excessive urination
  53. Dysuria
    Painful urination
  54. Pyuria
    Urination of WBCs
  55. Hematuria
    Urination of RBCs
  56. Nocturia
    Urination more than 2 times per night
  57. Oliguria
    Minimal urination
  58. Proteinuria
    Urination of protein
  59. Glycosuria
    Uriniation of glucose over 180 mg/dl
  60. Azotemia
    • Excess nitrogen in blood
    • Only found in lab tests
    • causes renal failure
  61. Uremia
    • Excess BUN
    • Found in lab tests, but also has clinical signs and symptoms
  62. Acute nephritic syndrome
    • Autoimmune
    • High BP
    • Hematuria
  63. Occult hematuria
    blood in the urine that is not visible
  64. Nephrolitiasis
    Kidney stones
  65. Polycystic kidney disease
  66. Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis
    • Autoimmune
    • presents as acute nephritic syndrome
    • hematuria, HTN, increase BUN and Cr
  67. Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
    • Autoimmune
    • Arcs of cells (mases) form and collapse glomerulus
  68. Membranous glomerulonephritis
    • Autoimmune
    • Thickened basement membrane
  69. Minimal change glomerulonephritis
    • Glomerular epithelia cells change slightly
    • only seen within electron microscopy
  70. IgA glomerulonephritis
    • Antibodies deposit in support (mesangial) cells of glomerulus
    • Most common glomerulonephritis worldwide
  71. Chronic glomerulonephritis
    • Long term renal failure or "smoldering" autoimmune state
    • Seen as occult protein in urine
    • Fatigue due to anemia
  72. Cresentic glomerulonephritis
    • Crescent of epithelial cells proliferate along the parietal rim of the glomerular space and obliterate the glomerulus
    • Found in progressively worsening glomerulonephritis
  73. Secondary glomerular disease
    • Diabetic glomerulosclerosis
    • Renal ablation glomerulopathy
  74. Diseases of renal vasculature
    • Benign nephrosclerosis
    • Malignant nephrosclerosis
    • Renovascular hypertension caused by atherosclerosis
  75. Malignant nephrosclerosis
    Causes onionskin hyperplasia of the renal arteriole
  76. Acute tubular necrosis
    • necrotic tubular epithelium
    • Pyramids are congested
  77. Tubulointerstitial nephritis
    • Interstitium filled with chronic inflammatory cells (lymphocytes)
    • Tubules dilated and filled with protein casts
    • Tubular epithelium is atrophic
  78. Obstruction, reflux, and stasis
    • Obstruction and reflux encourage infection and stone formation and contribute directly to hydronephrosis and tubulointerstitial nephritis
    • Does not always cause infection
  79. Acute pyelonephritis
    • Caused by ascending infection of E. coli and other fecal bacteria that ascend to the kidney from the bladder
    • Presence of bacteria in urine is not helpful in diagnosis
    • Often associated with reflux or obstruction
    • Responsible for 10% of patients on dialysis
    • May cause chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis
  80. Nephrolithiasis
    Calcium stone in the renal pelvis
  81. Tumors of kidney
    • Renal cell carcinoma often found in renal vein and vena cava
    • Transitional cell carcinoma found in the renal pelvis
  82. What is the cause of apthous oral ulcers?
    The cause is unknown
  83. A peptic ulcer can be found where?
    In the stomach
  84. Barrett metaplsia is associated with an increased risk of what?
    Esophageal carcinoma
  85. What is luminal phase malabsorption syndrome caused by?
    chronic pancreatitis
  86. What is characteristic of colonic carcinoma
    Silent bleeding
  87. True or false? Carcinoma of the colon kills more people anually than breast cancer does
  88. True or false? Helicobactor pylori infection is the cause of most malabsorption syndromes
  89. True or false? Barrett esophagus carries an increased risk of carcinoma
  90. True or false? A single stool exam for occult blood can detect most premalignant lesions of the colon
  91. True or false? Most peptic ulcers occur in the stomach
    False, most peptic ulcers occur in the duodenum
  92. Melena
    Is passage of black stool with high content of altered blood
  93. Hematochezia
    Passage of overtly bloody stool (bright red)
  94. Hematemesis
    Vomiting of blood
  95. Ileus
    parastaltic paralysis
  96. Pathologic intussusception
    the one part of the intestine swallows the other, causing infarct
  97. Sialadenitis
    Inflammation of salivary glands (viral or autoimmune)
  98. Sjogren syndrome
    Dry mouth and dry eyes
  99. Pleomorphic adenoma
    • Most often benign salivary gland tumor
    • 80% 5 year survival rate
    • Excision may damage facial nerve
  100. Dysphagia
    Painful, difficult swallowing
  101. Achalasia
    LES spasm, chronic
  102. Hiatal hernia
    Protrusion of the stomach through the hiatus
  103. Mallory-Weiss syndrome
    Bulimic lacerations near gastro-esophageal junction
  104. Esophageal varices
    Dilated veins in esophogus due to cirrhotic scarring
  105. Conditions associated with helicobacter pylori infection include
    • Atrophic gastritis
    • Chronic peptic ulceration
    • Gastric carcinoma
    • Peptic ulcers are associated with H. pylori
  106. Acute gastric erosions
    Associated with severe trauma, sepsis, major surgeries, grave illness, alcohol abuse, burns, CNS trauma or surgery, chronic exposure to NSAIDs and corticosteroids
  107. Meckel diverticulum
    Congenital large remnant pouch on jejunum
  108. Gastroschisis
    Failure of abdominal wall, intestines protrude
  109. Omphalocele
    Less severe bowel outpouching
  110. Umbilical hernia
    Small 1-2 cm bowel extrusion at naval
  111. Hischsprung disease
    • genetic absence of the autonomic ganglionic neural plexus in colon wall, which controls peristalsis
    • No neural control
    • upstrean colon is distended with feces
  112. Hemorrhoids
    • Dilated (varicose) veins
    • Bleed bright red regularly
  113. Angiodysplasia
    Small collection of blood vessels in the cecum/colon
  114. Volvulus
    twisted bowel loops with infarction of small bowel
  115. Bacterial enterocolitis
    • Diarrhea caused by
    • Bacteria ingested in food
    • Rotavirus is most common cause
  116. Sprue
    Malabsoprtion with fatty stools
  117. Luminal malabsorption
    In center of tube, lack of pancreatic enzymes (lipase)
  118. Intestinal malabsorption
    • Intestine itself (lack of lactase)
    • Autoimmune response to gluten
  119. non-tropical sprue
    Gluten sensitivity
  120. Crohn's
    Deep granulomatous inflammation anywhere in the bowels
  121. Ulcerative colitis
    superficial nongranulomatous inflammation in only the colon
  122. Diverticulosis
    • Thin-walled outpouches without muscuar lining
    • Common in high fat diets with low fiber
  123. Tubular adenoma (adenomatous polyp)
    • 50% of population, 10-15 years before malignant
    • Silent bleeding (occult)
  124. Villous adenoma
    • Large, fern-like
    • Worse than adenomatous polyp
  125. Familial polyposis
    • genetic
    • 1000s of polyps
  126. Colon carcinoma
    Less deaths than lung, but more than breast
  127. Astler-Coller staging system
    • Staging of progression of colonic carcinoma and survival rate
    • Stages A through D
  128. Acute appendicitis
    • 10% of population
    • Often caused by a fecalith
  129. Enterohepatic circulation refers to
    Circulation of bile within the liver
  130. Hepatitis B and C infections are transmitted by
    parenataly or by sexual contact
  131. What type of cirrhosis does alcoholism cause?
    Portal cirrhosis, as does Hep B
  132. True or false? Bacterial infection causes most cholecystitis
  133. True or false? Genetic hemochromatosis can be treated effectively by phlebotomy
  134. True or false? Biliary obstruction causes increased conjugated bilirubin
  135. True or false? Esophageal varices are a direct consequence of portal hypertension
  136. True or false? Hepatitis A is usually transmitted by blood transfusion or needlestick
    False, that is Hep B and C
  137. True or false? Cirrhosis is the most common cause of portal hypertension
  138. True or false? Acute cholecystitis is the most common major complication of gallstones
  139. Portal hypertension
    leads to ascites, congestive splenomegaly, esophageal varices
  140. Hepatitis A
    • Epidemic
    • Caused by food and water
    • Not chronic, and does not cause cirrhosis
  141. Chronic hepatitis
    Signaled by continuing jaundice or clinical symptoms, or the continued presence of virus in blood
  142. Hepatitis C
    • Chronic hepatitis
    • reappearance of jaundice or clinical symptoms
  143. Autoimmune hepatitis
    • No blood presence of blood markers of hep A,B,C
    • Antibodies
    • Liver abscess
    • Ascending cholangitis
    • Toxic liver injury
  144. Alcoholic liver disease
    Fatty liver
  145. Hemochromatosis
    • Excess iron buildup
    • Common genetic mutation
    • 10% northern Europeans at least carriers
    • 10x more men
  146. Wilsons Disease
    • Genetic build up of copper
    • Poor excretion
    • Neurologic symptoms requires transplant or if early possible chelation therapy
  147. Hepatocellular carcinoma
    • Primary tumor is a single large mass
    • Liver is cirrhotic
  148. Cirrhosis
    Major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma
  149. Acute pancreatitis is most commonly associated with
  150. What is type 1 diabetes associated with
    Autoimmunity, young age at onset, risk of ketoacidosis
  151. What is diagnostic of diabetes
    Fasting blood glucose level of 150 mg/dL
  152. All of the complications of diabetes are caused by
  153. True or false? Blood amylase and lipase levels are elevated only in chronic pancreatitis
  154. True or false? Shock in acute prancreatitis occurs when sympathetic nerve signals relax peripheral vascular tone
  155. True or false? Carcinoma of the pancreas is usually incurable by the time symptoms occur
  156. True or false? Type 2 diabetes is the result of peripheral insulin resistance
  157. True or false? Diabetic microvascular disease is the cause of diabetic retinopathy
  158. Acute and chronic pancreatitis
    • Hal of patients have gallstones
    • 2/3 of patients abuse alcohol
    • Amylase (CHO) and lipase (FAT) enzymes self-digest nerves, vessles, and glands
    • Excess proteases
  159. Acute pancreatitis
    Painful and catastrophic medical emergency associated with shock and death
  160. Chronic pancreatitis
    • Fibrotic and calcified pancreas
    • Occurs after repeat episodes of acute pancreatitis
    • Cause intestinal malabsorption and secondary diabetes
  161. Pancreatic carcinoma
    • Usually begins with upper abdominal pain or back pain
    • Painless jaundice may be initial sign that tumor is obstructing the common bile duct
    • Unexplained weight loss or migratory thrombophlebitis is suggestive
  162. Diabetes Mellitus (type 1)
    • Caused by autoimmune destruction of beta cells (islets of langerhans)
    • Ketoacidosis is a concern
  163. Type 2 diabetes
    • Inability to respond to insulin
    • Resistance of peripheral (target) cells to the action of normal levels of insulin, necessitating increased pancreatic secretion of insulin
    • Later, B-cell exhaustion = decreased insulin
  164. Epidermal stem cell
    Basal cell
  165. What is a skin condition associated with pregnancy?
    Melasma (mask of pregnancy)
  166. What is the pathogenesis of psoriasis?
    Epidermal over-proliferation
  167. What is lichen simplex chronicus caused by?
    Chronic rubbing or scratching
  168. What is the most common malignancy of skin?
    Malignant melanoma
  169. True or false? A papule is a small, solid, raised lesion less than 0.5 cm in diameter
  170. True or false? People exposed to relatively large amounts of sunlight in childhood are more likely to develop nevi
  171. True or false? Rosacea is most common in adolescent females
    False, it is most common in middle aged women
  172. True or false? Seborrheic keratosis are premalignant
  173. True or false? The underlying immune reaction is the same in systemic lupus and cutaneous discoid lupus
  174. Epidermis
    Surface squamous epithelium of skin and includes stem cells (basal cells)
  175. Dermis
    Fibrocollagen layer of skin beneath the epidermis, which is separated from the epidermis by the basement membrane and contains skin appendages such as sweat glands and hair folicles
  176. Subcutis
    Layer of fat immediately beneath the dermis
  177. Crust
    Surface collectino of dried serum and cell debris
  178. Cyst
    Closed space beneath the epidermis that contains fluid or semisolid material
  179. Eczema
    Inflamed, crusted skin with vesicles
  180. Fissure
    A grove or crack-like lesion
  181. Lichenified
    Area of skin with thickening of epidermis and exaggeration of normal skin lines caused by chronic rubbing or scratching
  182. Macule
    Flat, discrete, discolored lesion <1.0 cm
  183. Papule
    A raised, domed superficial lesion <0.5 cm
  184. Nodule
    A firm, raised lesion, larger and deeper than a papule
  185. Patch
    A flat, discrete, discolored lesion larger than a macule
  186. Plaque
    A raised, flat-topped superficial lesion larger than a papule
  187. Pustule
    A small superficial abscess
  188. Scale
    A superficial, thin, plate-like flaking off of shedding epidermal cells
  189. Ulcer
    A cavity not covered by epidermis
  190. Vesicle/bulla
    A blister filled with a fluid; a vesicle is small (<0.5 cm) whereas a bulla is larger
  191. Wheal
    A smooth, slightly elevated lesion that is reddish or pale and usually itchy
  192. Eczema
    • Dermatitis expressed as itchy, paulovesicular, oozing, crusted lesions
    • The most common type of eczema is allergic contact dermatitis - poison ivy for example
  193. Spider angiomas
    • Caused by high estrogen content
    • Radiating vascular spokes on upper body and face during pregnancy
  194. Alopecia
    Hair loss
  195. Hirsutism
    Excess hair
  196. Vitiligo
    • Confluent macules and patches
    • Lack of melanocytes in that area
    • All races can suffer
  197. Lentigo
    • Flat, brown patches
    • Hyperplasia of melanocytes
    • Non-neoplastic, non-darkening in sun
  198. Psoriasis
    Caused by an over-proliferation of epidermal cells in genetically inclined persons
  199. Lichen simplex chronicus
    thickened, white skin caused by rubbing and scratching
  200. Non-contact dermatitis
    • Photoaging effect (leathery skin)
    • Stasis dermatitis (vericose veins and poor blood flow)
    • Urticaria (itchy, hives, allergic)
  201. Contact dermatitis
    • Allergic: atopic dermatitis, nummular dermatitis
    • Commonly called eczema
  202. Acne vulgaris
    • Confluent, erythematous papules, patches, and pustules
    • often caucasians
    • Genetic components
  203. White heads
    Sebaceous plugs (comedos)
  204. Oxidized melanin
    black heads
  205. Impetigo
    • Common superficial skin infection that forms pustules
    • Often occurs in infants and children
    • Caused by staphylococcus or streptococcus infection
  206. Cold sores
    Oral herpesvirus
  207. Verrucae vulgaris
    • Warts
    • Caused by human papilloma virus
  208. Actinic (solar) keratosis
    • often pre-malignant
    • Squamous carcinoma
    • Light-skinned persons
    • In the base of the lesion is a focus of invasive squamous cell carcinoma
  209. Basal cell carcinoma
    • Pearly plaque/nodule with raised, rolled edges
    • Masses of small, dark basal cells invading the dermis
    • Most common skin cancer
  210. Nevi
    • Moles
    • Most common benign tumor of melanocytes
  211. Malignant melanoma
    • Most dangerous skin cancer
    • Irregular border and variation of pigmentation
    • Deep black pigmentation and irregular border
    • Pinkish area and irregular border
    • Initially spreads outward in a radial fashion as an in situ malignancy before penetrating the basement membrane
    • Tumor later becomes nodular and grows vertically into the dermis
  212. The normal growth of long bones occurs in which part of the bone?
  213. Bone broken at the site of cancer metastasis is what kind of fracture
  214. What sex is osteoporosis related to?
    Female sex
  215. What disease, other than RA, can rheumatoid factor be found?
    Hepatitis B
  216. What type of disease is Myasthenia Gravis?
  217. True or false? Malignant fibrous histocytoma (MFH) of skin is much less malignant that MFH of other sites
  218. True or false? Becker muscular dystrophy is characterized by abnormal dystrophin
  219. True or false? Acute septic arthritis is a common form of arthritis
  220. True or false? In a patient with apparent rheumatoid arthritis, the presence of rheumatoid nodules confirms the diagnosis
  221. True or false? The head of the femur is especially prone to aeptic necrosis
  222. Scoliosis
    Abnormal curvature of the upper spine
  223. Kyphosis
    Abnormal forward curvature
  224. Lordosis
    Abnormal backward curvature (may protrude belly)
  225. Achondroplasia
    Genetic short-limbed dwarfism
  226. Osteogenesis imperfecta
    • Genetic cartilage defects
    • Brittle bone disease, heart valves, inner ear affected
  227. Paget disease
    • Common
    • Cause may be chronic viral infection
    • Rapid bone formation and breakdown
    • Osteoblastic exhaustion later
    • Pain, deformity, fracture
    • 1% leads to osteosarcoma
  228. Comminuted fracture
  229. Osteomyelitis
    Bacterial infection from direct traumatic implantation into bone
  230. Aseptic (avascular) necrosis
    • Impaired blood flow, corticosteroid
    • Infarction, necrosis
    • Especially in head of femur and carpals
    • Mainly issue in growing children
  231. Osteomalacia
    • Soft, QUALITITATIVE probem of bone hardness
    • Caused by inadequate calcium, vitamin D, and phosphate
  232. Rickets
    • Vitamin D deficiency
    • Malformations in growing kids (legs bowed)
  233. Renal Osteodystrophy
    • Kidneys do not excrete PO4 properly
    • Blood levels of phosphate drives down Ca2+ in blood
  234. Metastatic carcinoma
    Most common breast cancer, prostate cancer, and lung cancer
  235. Osteosarcoma
    • Most common malignant tumor of bone
    • 80% primary bone tumors is knee
  236. Bone-forming tumors
    Benign: small, little consequence
  237. Cartilage-forming tumors
    • Benign: little consequence
    • Malignant (chondrosarcoma): Neoplastic cartilage; most are low grade, sluggish tumors, 5-yr survival 80%
  238. Fibrous tumors and tumor-like conditions
    • Fibrous cortical defect (nonossifying fibroma): Children
    • developmental defect, not neoplasm
    • Fibrosarcoma: Malignant tumor of fibrocytes
  239. Ankylosis
    Fibrous binding and welding of a joint
  240. Z deformity
    Ulnar drift with fingers deviating oppositely
  241. Secondary amyloidosis
    Autoimmune Ig complexes deposit in kidneys, liver, spleen, adrenals
  242. Juveneile RA
    sudden, systemic, toxic, no RF antibodies but instead anti-nuclear antibodies
  243. Ankylosing spondylitis
    Relapsing, vertebral fibrous fusion, stiff spine, chronic back pain
  244. Reactive arthritis
    Presents 1 month post infection elsewhere
  245. Psoriatic arthritis
    • 10% of psoriasis (skin disease) patients
    • Affects small joints of hands and feet first
  246. Spondyloarthropathies
    Ankylosing spondylitis
  247. Gout
    • Metabolic, inflammatory disease
    • Men
    • Uric acid crystals in joints, usually the big toe
    • Atherosclerosis accelerated by high serum uric acid
  248. Lyme disease
    • Bacterial infection; deer tick vector
    • Late stage = arthritis, WI and MN are primary band of states involved
  249. Polymyalgia rheumatica
    Dx made in absence of other dx shoulder pain, stiffness, malaise, moodiness; no arthritic inflammation
  250. Degenerative disc disease
    • Ring of tough cartilage around discs bulges or ruptures
    • Puts pressure on spinal root nerves = pain, tingling, numbness, paraysis
  251. Spondylolisthesis
    Sliding lumbar vertebrae from abnormal joint stress, usually asymptomatic
  252. Bursitis
    Inflammed bursal sacs that lubricate tendons sliding over bones or where bone is near skin
  253. Tendinitis
    Inflammed tendons
  254. Fibromyalgia
    Chronic pain, percieved swelling, little physical evidence, malfunction of brain pain centers
  255. Ganglion cyst
    Small pseudo-cyst near tendon sheath, usually only removed if unsightly, limit motion, painful
  256. Pigmented villonodular synovitis
    • Benign but locally invasive neoplasm
    • Does NOT metastasize
    • 80% in knee, tendon sheaths
    • Surgical excision is curative
  257. Giant cell tumor of tendon sheath
    simlar to pigmented villonodular synovitis, but in wrist
  258. Neurogenic atrophy
    shrinking muscle upon denervation
  259. Disuse atrophy
    • Immobilization, corticosteroid therapy
    • Type 2 fibers affected
  260. Genetic atrophy
    Muscular dystrophy
  261. Muscular dystrophy
    • Genetic
    • Absence of dystrophin protein in muscle cells
  262. Becker Muscular Dystrophy
    • Milder, present but abnormal dystrophin
    • Muscle cells ultimately die, fatty fibrous tissue replaces it
  263. Polymyositis
    • Autoimmune defense infiltrate of inflammatory cells
    • Lymphocytes among muscle cells
    • High serum CK
    • T-cell damage
  264. Myasthenia Gravis
    • Type-2 autoimmune reaction: cytotoxic hypersensitivity
    • Antibodies attach to target cell, which is destroyed by phagocytosis or inflammation
    • Antibodies attach to target-cell receptors and interfere with target-cell function, as in the blockage of signal transmission from nerve to muscle in myesthemia gravis
  265. Lipoma
    • Benign fatty tumor
    • Liposarcoma - malignant, deep, large
  266. Fibroma
    Cartilage-producing benign tumor
  267. Fibrosarcoma
    Malignant, commonly around knee
  268. Malignant fibrous histocytoma (MFH)
    • Most common soft tissue sarcoma in adults
    • Quite malignant, about half metastasize