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three major functions of urinary system
- homeostatic regulation of volume and solutes in blood
components of urinary system
- urinary bladder
Which organ in the urinary system produces urine?
Which organ in the urinary system temporarily stores urine?
a dense fibrous layer that anchors the kidney to surrounding structures
In what part of the kidney are the renal pyramids located?
The glomerulus and the glomerular capsule form the
Which of the following parts of the nephron has two limbs with thick segments and thin segments?
Which of the following brings oxygenated blood into the kidney?
In which of the basic processes involved in urine formation does blood pressure force water and solutes across the wall of the glomerular capillaries?
Which of the following is NOT a waste product normally found in urine?
What is the term for the type of transport where two substrates cross the membrane while bound to a carrier protein, with at least one following its concentration gradient?
Which of the following is the term for the blood pressure in the capillaries of the renal corpuscle?
glomerular hydrostatic pressure
The amount of filtrate the kidneys produce each minute is the
glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
Constriction of the afferent arteriole
In which of the following areas of the nephron are most nutrients reabsorbed?
(PCT) proximal convoluted tubule
In which of the following areas of the nephron would countercurrent multiplication occur?
In which of the following parts of the nephron does aldosterone control the reabsorption of sodium ions?
distal convoluted tubule and collecting duc
What is the urinary structure that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder?
The area in the urinary bladder that is bounded by the openings of the ureters and the entrance to the urethra is the
effect of advanced age on the urinary system
- reduced sensitivity to ADH
- increase in the formation of kidney stones
- problems with urinary retention in males due to enlarged prostate
the path of blood flow into the kidney
- Renal artery
- Segmental artery
- Interlobar artery
- Arcuate artery
- Cortical radiate artery
- Afferent arteriole
steps involved in urine formation
- Renal corpuscle collects filtrate
- PCT actively removes solutes and produces osmotic flow of water out of the tubular fluid
- Water enters peritubular space from PCT and descending limb of nephron loop
- Salts leave the ascending nephron loop, setting up a diffusion gradient in the medulla
- Permeability to water in DCT and collecting system set osmotic urine concentration
- Tubular fluid becomes increasingly concentrated and urea concentration rises
define Glomerular hydrostatic pressure
Blood pressure in the glomerular capillaries
define Capsular hydrostatic pressure
Force of the fluid in the glomerular capsule on the blood
define Net hydrostatic pressure
Difference between the pressure pushing water and solutes out of the blood stream and the pressure pushing water and solutes into the blood stream
define Blood colloid osmotic pressure
Osmotic pressure resulting from suspended proteins, drawing water out of the filtrate
define Filtration pressure
Difference between the hydrostatic pressure and the colloid pressure across the glomerular capillaries
define Glomerular filtration rate
Amount of filtrate produced by the kidneys each minute
Elimination of urine
Drugs that promote the loss of water in urine
Kidney stones formed from calcium deposits
Use of an artificial membrane to regulate the composition of blood
Inability to voluntarily control urination
Loss of blood in urine
The juxtaglomerular complex is the site of the release of
renin and erythropoietin
Release of renin leads to
constriction of the efferent arteriole, which increases glomerular pressure
The urethra carries urine from the
bladder to the outside of the body
A immune response that produces large amounts of antibodies can lead to glomerulonephritis.
While the glomerulus is not the site of infection, the production of high numbers of antibodies is sufficient to clog the filtration mechanism in the nephron.
Found in normal urine, __________ is an organic waste produced from the breakdown of CP in skeletal muscles.
The plasma concentration at which a specific compound will begin appearing in the urine is the
Hydrogen ion secretion is associated with the reabsorption of
The __________ maintains the concentration gradient of the medulla by removing the solutes and water reabsorbed at the nephron loop.
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