Urinary System

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Urinary System
2012-04-29 16:28:41
Anatomy Urinary System

Chapter 26 Urinary System
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  1. three major functions of urinary system
    • excretion
    • elimination
    • homeostatic regulation of volume and solutes in blood

  2. components of urinary system
    • kidneys
    • ureters
    • urinary bladder
    • urethra
  3. micturition
  4. Which organ in the urinary system produces urine?
  5. Which organ in the urinary system temporarily stores urine?
    urinary bladder
  6. a dense fibrous layer that anchors the kidney to surrounding structures
    renal fascia
  7. In what part of the kidney are the renal pyramids located?
    renal medulla
  8. The glomerulus and the glomerular capsule form the
    renal corpuscle
  9. Which of the following parts of the nephron has two limbs with thick segments and thin segments?
    nephron loop
  10. Which of the following brings oxygenated blood into the kidney?
    renal artery
  11. In which of the basic processes involved in urine formation does blood pressure force water and solutes across the wall of the glomerular capillaries?
  12. Which of the following is NOT a waste product normally found in urine?
  13. What is the term for the type of transport where two substrates cross the membrane while bound to a carrier protein, with at least one following its concentration gradient?
  14. Which of the following is the term for the blood pressure in the capillaries of the renal corpuscle?
    glomerular hydrostatic pressure
  15. The amount of filtrate the kidneys produce each minute is the
    glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
  16. Constriction of the afferent arteriole
    decreases GFR
  17. In which of the following areas of the nephron are most nutrients reabsorbed?
    (PCT) proximal convoluted tubule
  18. In which of the following areas of the nephron would countercurrent multiplication occur?
    nephron loop
  19. In which of the following parts of the nephron does aldosterone control the reabsorption of sodium ions?
    distal convoluted tubule and collecting duc
  20. What is the urinary structure that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder?
  21. The area in the urinary bladder that is bounded by the openings of the ureters and the entrance to the urethra is the
  22. effect of advanced age on the urinary system
    • reduced sensitivity to ADH
    • increase in the formation of kidney stones
    • problems with urinary retention in males due to enlarged prostate
  23. the path of blood flow into the kidney
    • Renal artery
    • Segmental artery
    • Interlobar artery
    • Arcuate artery
    • Cortical radiate artery
    • Afferent arteriole
    • Glomerulus
  24. steps involved in urine formation
    • Renal corpuscle collects filtrate
    • PCT actively removes solutes and produces osmotic flow of water out of the tubular fluid
    • Water enters peritubular space from PCT and descending limb of nephron loop
    • Salts leave the ascending nephron loop, setting up a diffusion gradient in the medulla
    • Permeability to water in DCT and collecting system set osmotic urine concentration
    • Tubular fluid becomes increasingly concentrated and urea concentration rises
  25. define Glomerular hydrostatic pressure
    Blood pressure in the glomerular capillaries
  26. define Capsular hydrostatic pressure
    Force of the fluid in the glomerular capsule on the blood
  27. define Net hydrostatic pressure
    Difference between the pressure pushing water and solutes out of the blood stream and the pressure pushing water and solutes into the blood stream
  28. define Blood colloid osmotic pressure
    Osmotic pressure resulting from suspended proteins, drawing water out of the filtrate
  29. define Filtration pressure
    Difference between the hydrostatic pressure and the colloid pressure across the glomerular capillaries
  30. define Glomerular filtration rate
    Amount of filtrate produced by the kidneys each minute
  31. define Diuresis
    Elimination of urine
  32. define Diuretics
    Drugs that promote the loss of water in urine
  33. define Calculi
    Kidney stones formed from calcium deposits
  34. define Hemodialysis
    Use of an artificial membrane to regulate the composition of blood
  35. define incontinence
    Inability to voluntarily control urination
  36. define Hematuria
    Loss of blood in urine
  37. The juxtaglomerular complex is the site of the release of
    renin and erythropoietin
  38. Release of renin leads to
    constriction of the efferent arteriole, which increases glomerular pressure
  39. The urethra carries urine from the
    bladder to the outside of the body
  40. A immune response that produces large amounts of antibodies can lead to glomerulonephritis.
    While the glomerulus is not the site of infection, the production of high numbers of antibodies is sufficient to clog the filtration mechanism in the nephron.
  41. Found in normal urine, __________ is an organic waste produced from the breakdown of CP in skeletal muscles.
  42. The plasma concentration at which a specific compound will begin appearing in the urine is the
    renal threshold
  43. Hydrogen ion secretion is associated with the reabsorption of
  44. The __________ maintains the concentration gradient of the medulla by removing the solutes and water reabsorbed at the nephron loop.
    vasa recta