molecular biology 3

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  1. genome
    • the genetic information in a cell
    • chromosomes and plasmids
  2. chromosome
    • structure in a cell that carries hereditary information
    • composed of DNA and protien and genes
  3. DNA
    • nitrogenous base A-T G-C (nucleobase)
    • double helix (nucleotides twisted)
  4. genes
    segments of DNA that code for functional products. codes for mRNA molecule
  5. genetic code
    set of rules that determines how nucleotide - amino acid sequence of protien
  6. mRNA
    results in formation of a protien
  7. genotype
    • genetic makeup; charataristics
    • potential properties, not proporties themselves (DNA)
  8. phenotype
    • expression of gene;how it appears
    • expressed portion, manifistation of gene, protiens
  9. central dogma
    • replication
    • transcription
    • translation
  10. replication
    copying of info for next generation
  11. replication steps
    • separation fork
    • hydrogen bonds
    • catalyze
  12. rep- separation fork
    double helix of parent DNA separate
  13. Rep- hydrogen bonds
    form between A-T and G-C
  14. rep- catalyze
    enzymes catalyze formation resulting in a daughter strand
  15. DNA synthesis
    • helicase unwinds
    • leading strand- DNA polymerase
    • lagging strand- RNA polymerase/DNA polmerase
    • DNA ligase
  16. helicase
    an enzyme that unwinds template dna
  17. leading strand
    synthesized continuasly by dna polymearase
  18. lagging strand
    RNA polymerase synthesizes RNA primer- made longer by DNA polymeraswe
  19. DNA ligase
    joins discontinued fragments
  20. DNA polymerase
    copy DNA from DNA
  21. RNA polymerase
    copies RNA from DNA
  22. DNA ligase
    joins segments of DNA
  23. transcription
    • copying of information for use by the cell
    • allows the cell to produce copies of genes that are used as the direct source of info for portien synthesis
  24. ribosomal RNA
    cellular machinery for protien synthesis
  25. transfer RNA
    involved in protien synthesis
  26. messanger RNA
    • carries coded info for making protiens from DNA to ribosomes
    • acts as an intermediate between DNA and translation
  27. nucleoic bases in DNA
    • C-G
    • A-U
    • T-A
    • G-C
  28. transcription requries
    RNA polymerase
  29. promotor
    where RNA polymerase binds at DNA
  30. transcription steps
    • promotor
    • C G A U - no T
    • transcribed DNA rewinded
    • terminatior
  31. terminator
    reaches terminator and it relases RNA and RNA polymerase causing DNA to rehelix
Card Set:
molecular biology 3
2012-04-29 00:02:22

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