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What is the conducting portion include?
- nasal cavity
What is the respiratory portion composed of?
- alveolar ducts
What two phases does breathing consist of?
- inhalation: inspiration
- Exhalation: expiration
What are the two types of gas exhange?
- external respiration: atmosphere and blood
- internal respiration: blood and cells
What does it mean that gasses are conditioned?
- warmed to body temp
- cleansed of particulate matter
What is the anterior region of the nasal cavity called?
What are nose hairs called?
What are the four sinuses of the skull?
What is the pharynx primarily used for?
What are the three portions of the pharynx?
- nasopharynx: only air passes, contains adenoids, ciliated
- oropharynx: both air and swallowed food, no cilia, palatine and lingual tonsils
- laryngopharynx: no cilia, food and air, food most often stuck here
What is the adam's apple called?
What is the largest cartilage of the larynx?
What forms the inferior base of larynx?
cricoid cartilage, perfect ring
What can be done to surgically open the larynx?
cricothyrotomy, vertical then horizontal
How does the epiglottis close?
toward the spine
What traps food, pills, and spit that is anterior to epiglottis?
What are the two ligaments in the larynx?
- superior ligaments: vestibular folds or false vocal cords
- inferior ligaments: vocal folds or true vocal cords
What is the opening between the vocal folds called?
What holds the trachea open?
tracheal cartilages: C shaped rings, 15-20
What are the C shaped rings bound together by?
What is the seperation of the trachea into bronchi called?
What is the medial suface of the lung called?
How many alveoli are in the lungs?
What are dust cells?
alveolar macrophages that engulf microorganisms that have reached the alveoli
How many times does an adult breath in a minute?
What two diseases are related to smoking?
- chronic bronchitis
- Together called chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)