aabio TEST ONE REVIEW

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Author:
tjtolman
ID:
150800
Filename:
aabio TEST ONE REVIEW
Updated:
2012-04-28 20:40:48
Tags:
bio
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TEST ONE REVIEW
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  1. What is biology:
    • study of life (biology is a science facts and concepts)
    • 1) atoms and molecules
    • 2) organisms
    • 3) cells
  2. Hierarechial structure:
    small things combine to larger-
  3. Metabolism
    chemical reactions to obtain and use energy from environment
  4. Coordination:
    internal regulation "nervous system"
  5. Homeostasis:
    internal conditions stay relatively constant
  6. Interaction to environment:
    ecology
  7. Scientific method:
    • observation
    • hypothesis
    • experiment
    • data analysis
    • write up
    • peer review / publish
  8. Theory:
    group of well supported hypothesis
  9. Storage and use of genetic info:
    central dogma= DNA in nucleus-->mRNA messenger (RNA goes to cytoplasm)--->protein
  10. Natural selection: A process that leads to evolution
    • "some organisms do better than others"
    • Necessary:organisms are variable
    • Organisms can reproduce sexually
    • Organisms are tested by environment
    • -change in proportion of diff. gene types
  11. atoms:
    • building blocks / make up matter
    • -nucleus center/small dense
    • -orbital : energy level
  12. Elements -
    • atoms w/ same atomic #
    • -can vary in number of neutrons= isotopes
    • -half life: decay rate
  13. Electrons:
    • in some reactions electrons are transferred btwn atoms.
    • GAIN OF ELECTRON - REDUCTION
    • LOSS OF ELECTRON - OXIDATION
  14. Atoms most stable when:
    outer energy level is full
  15. Atom bonding:
    • bonds to form molecules
    • -atom gives up electron
    • -atom shares electron
  16. Ionic compound:
    • Ion- atom in which # of electrons does not equal....
    • charged + cation
    • anion -
    • opposites attract
    • Ionic bond - when ions bond
  17. Covalent bond:
    • ELECTRONS ARE SHARED
    • N-H-N
  18. Chemical reactions:
    • making and breaking of bonds
    • Reactant---> Product
  19. Enzyme:
    protein / speed up reaction
  20. Polar molecule:
  21. Water molecule interact:
    Hydrogen bonds
  22. Properties of water:
    • 1) polar molecules can dissolve in H20
    • a) glucose - can disolve
    • b) ionic substance- can dissolve
    • c) non polar substances (fats) - do not dissolve in H20
  23. Hydrophilic:
    can dissolve in water
  24. Hydrophobic:
    does not dissolve in water
  25. SOLUTION - SUGAR IN WATER
    • solvent: H20
    • salute: sugar
  26. cohesion / adhesion
    • attraction of like things (H20 molecules) surface tension
    • attraction of unlike things
  27. Ice:
    hydrogen bonds held slightly farther apart (less dense=floats)
  28. Specific heat:
    • amount of energy absorbed to raise 1g 1degree
    • H20 - high specific heat (to heat up: molecules need to move/ break hydrogen bonds)
    • living things have stable temp. / dont warm up easy (ponds)
  29. Acids:
    • release H+ (hydrogen ions) into H20 solution
    • HCl --> H2 + Cl-
    • General term: R-COOH--->R-COOH- + H
    • R-COOH *carboxyl group
  30. Base:
    • release OH- (hydroxide ion)
    • NaOH --> Na+ + OH-
    • R-NH2---> R-NH3+
    • R= base takes up H+
    • NH2 = amino group
  31. PH scale:
    • Measures acidity: 0-14
    • 7 - neutral (pure water) (H2)=(OH-)
    • living things need contant PH bc enzymes are hurt by wrong ph
  32. Buffers:
    • compounds that take up or release H+ to keep Ph constant (flexible/sponges)
    • -all cells have them to balance

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