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Five Primary Functions of the Skeletal System
- Storage of Minerals calcium and Lipids yellow marrow
- Blood Cell Production red marrow
- Leverage force of motion
Bones are classified by....
- Location axial vs appendicular
- Bone markings various surface features
- Internal tissue organization compact vs spongy
- Manner of formation endochondral vs intramembranous ossification
What are the six different shapes of bone?
- Sutural Bones = small, irregular bones found between the flat bones of the skull
- Irregular Bones = complex shapes examples: spinal vertebrae, pelvic bones
- Short Bones = small and thick examples: ankle and wrist bones
- Flat Bones = thin with parallel surfaces found in the skull, sternum, ribs, and scapulae
- Long Bones = long and thin found in arms, legs, hands, feett, fingers, and toes
- Sesamoid Bones = small and flat develop inside tendons near joints of knees, hands, and feet
What are the different bone markings and what fucntions do they serve?
- Depressions or grooves, along bone surface
- Elevations or projections, where tendons and ligaments attach, at articulations with other bones
- Tunnels, where blood and nerves enter bone
List and describe the parts of a long bone.
- Diaphysis = the shaft, a heavy wall of compact bone or dense bone, a central space called medullary marrow cavity
- Epiphysis = wide part at each end, articulation with other bones, mostly spongy cancellous bone, covered with compact bone cortex
- Metaphysis = wheree diaphysis and epiphysis meet
Bone (Osseous) Tissue contains which four types of cells?
- Osteoprogenitor cells
Osteocytes have what function in the skeletal system?
Mature bone cells that maintain the bone matrix.
Immature bone cells that secrete matrix compounds called osteogenesis
What cells in the skeletal system are mesenchymal stem cells that divide to produce osteoblasts and fracture repair?
These cells dissolve the bone matrix and release stored minerals, also what is this process called?
Osteons are the basic unit in what type of bone?
In compact bone osteocytes are located in ______ and arranged in _______ ________.
- Concentric lamellae
A central canal in compact bones contains?
Perforating canals are located ________ to the central canal and carry blood vessels into ____ and ________.
The Circumferential Lamellae is?
Wrap around long bone and bind osteons together
- 1. Canaliculi
- 2. Concentric lamellae
- 3. Central canal
- 4. Osteon cell
- 5. Lacunae
- 1. Perforating fibers
- 2. Venule
- 3. Capillary
- 4. Perlosteum
- 5. Interstitial lamellae
- 6. Concentric lamellae
- 7. Trabeculae of spongy bone
- 8. Perforating canal
- 9. Central canal
- 10. Arteriole
- 11. Artery
- 12. Vein
The structure of spongy bone differs from compact bone in these four ways.
- No osteons
- Matrix is open network of trabeculae with no blood vessels
- Space between trabeculae filled with red bone marrow that forms red blood cells
- Yellow bone marrow stores fat in some spongy bone
Periosteum is located on the outside of bone (osseous) tissue and contains two different layers and does these two functions.
- Outer, fibrous layer and an inner, cellular layer
- Isolates bone, but also provides route for blood supply and bone growth/repair
Endosteum which is located on the inside of bone (osseous) tissue countains these three different types of cells and covers two different parts of the bone.
- Osteoprogenitor cells
- Incomplete cellular layer lining marrow cavity and covering trabeculae of spongy bone
- 1. Circumferential lamellae
- 2. Canaliculi
- 3. Osteocyte in lacuna
- 4. Perforating fibers
- 5. Cellular layer of periosteum
- 6. Fibrous layer of periosteum
- 1. Endosteum
- 2. Osteoclast
- 3. Bone matrix
- 4. Osteocyte
- 5. Osteoprogenitor cell
- 6. Osteoid
- 7. Osteoblast
What is ossification? What are the two different types of ossification?
- Replacing other tissues with bone
- Endochondral ossification = most common, ossifies bones that originate as hyaline cartilage
- Intramembranous ossification
This type of ossification produces dermal bones such as mandible (lower jaw) and clavicle (collarbone).
Intramembranous ossification involves what kind of process and cells?
The mesenchymal cells aggregate, differentiate into osteoblasts, and begin the ossification process. The bone expands as a series of spicules that spread into surrounding tissues trapping blood vessels within the bone and converting it into spongy bone.
Remodeling is what the adult skeleton does to maintain and renew old worn out bone but requires what two things to happen and how do those two processes contribute?
- Exercise: puts stress on bones making them thicker and stronger. Inactivity can VERY quickly result in decreased bone mass.
- Nutrition: bone deposition requires dietary sources like calcium and phosphate salts and a small amount of other minerals. Vitamins D3, C, A, K, and B12.
Which hormones does our body use to stimulate bone growth and it what ways do they achieve their goal?
- Growth hormone and thyroxine stimulate bone growth
- Estrogens and androgens stimulate osteoblasts
- Calcitoninand parathyroid hormone regulate calcium and phosphate levels
Fractures are repaired in four steps, name the four steps.
- 1. Bleeding - clot/hemotoma
- 2. Cells of the endosteum and periosteum from callus
- 3. Osteoblasts - replace callus w/ spongy bone
- 4. Osteoblasts and osteocytes remodel the fracture for up to a year.
What are the general classifiications of fractures?
- Compound (open) vs. Simple (closed) = based on whetheer bone ends penetrate the skin
- Displaced vs. Nondisplaced = based on whether bone ends retain normal alignment
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